The theoretical approaches testify to the division of the economy into the real and financial sectors based on the priority of the real sector in the development of the economy and the interconnections of the sectors under consideration within the framework of the traditional views of domestic and foreign scientists and the hegemony of the financial sector and the separation of the studied sectors within the new approach. The authors believe: the systematic approach allows the comprehensive consideration of the identified issues. The methodological approaches make it possible to separate and use different ways of understanding the economy. Justification of the priority of the systemic approach as the main component of the study of the economy and its subsystems is carried out on the theory of reproduction, capital, investment and innovation. Various research tasks are analyzed: the essence and properties of the economy; the nature of the linkages of sectors; the role of investments in these sectors. There are two main positions of Western scientists: 1) sectsors of the economy provide the integrity of the system (J. M. Keynes, H. F. Minsky, J. Tobin); 2) the sectors do not depend on each other in the system (T. Pally). Domestic economists represent the versatility of the economy (I.D. Afanasenko, D.Yu. Miropolsky). The authors investigate the economy of Russia as a system based on principles, where the economic system is an internal subsystem. Features: the perception of the economic system as a whole and as divided into sectors within the framework of a two-sector model, which can be expanded by strengthening the role of the state subsector, in particular, financial support for the traditional and innovative subsector, incl. radiolacation. New original scientific approach: sectors are internal subsystems of the economy. The property of the system as a whole is transferred to a part of the system and vice versa: this is unity in a multitude. The actual state is the presence of an unjustified gap between the sectors and partly the interconnections between them, which requires a policy of shock therapy. For Russia, it is important to revive the primary production principle of the real sector. The features of the system approach as a fundamental approach presents the essential characteristics of the national economy of Russia, as well as the real and financial sectors on the basis of a modern systematic approach in the context of digitalization, the effective functioning of which determines the GDP, NR and innovative potential.
Any company is interested in obtaining financial resources for the longest possible period and at the lowest possible cost. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the issuance of green bonds allows raising capital on more favorable terms compared to other types of bonds. Given the need to transition to a sustainable economy and to encourage companies to green their production and economic activities, the subject of this work looks relevant. The study is based on data from the Moscow Exchange and the financial portal Smart-lab.ru at the end of 2021. As part of the study, various yield and risk indicators of green bonds, social bonds, national project bonds and other corporate bonds were calculated; analysis of variance were used. The distinguishing characteristics of green bonds have been identified. It is shown that by a number of characteristics private green bonds can be more attractive to investors than other corporate ones. In countries with developed green financial markets, green bonds provide companies with cheaper resources, and also allow redistributing socially desirable costs between the production and economic sphere and financial sphere. In Russia, due to the low environmental interest of investors and their high assessment of the risks of green projects, there is no negative premium on green bonds. The results obtained complement the concept of green finance. The practical significance of the conclusions is to expand the capacity of company managers to plan financial activities and to provide the authorities with additional tools to stimulate the greening of economic entities. Accordingly, the work is of interest to corporate managers, authorities, experts in the field of green finance, as well as investors.
The purpose of this study is to identify typical trends in the development of insurance and the features of existing insurance systems with a high level of deposit protection, as well as to identify the shortcomings of the Russian insurance system and areas for improving development, taking into account foreign experience. The object of the study is the insurance systems of the EU countries, Great Britain and the USA and Russia. The subject of the study is the institutional features of the organization of various insurance systems and the degree of guaranteeing the protection of deposits in the event of bankruptcy of financial organizations or revocation of licenses. The relevance of conducting a comparative analysis of insurance systems is determined by constant changes in the choice of insurance regimes and the very institutional organization of insurance systems in different countries, as well as the variety of solutions in the architecture and regulatory rules. Comparison criteria include such issues as the division of functions in the institutional organization of insurance mechanisms, the level and breadth of coverage of the subject area of insurance compensation guarantees, the degree of state participation in guarantees and compensation, the role of the central bank in regulation and insurance. This study showed the diversity of institutional arrangements for deposit insurance and the differences not only between insurance models, but also between the systems of different countries belonging to the same model. The websites of central banks, international and national regulatory bodies of foreign countries and Russia were used as sources of information. The authors revealed a trend towards a shift in emphasis from guaranteeing insurance compensation to systemic regulation of the financial sector based on the integration of various institutions. Conclusions and judgments are made about the advantages of foreign systems and the possibilities of using foreign experience in Russian insurance.
This article discusses approaches to the formation of the concept of sustainable development. The controversial opinions of scientists on the adaptation of the understanding of the word "sustainability" translated from English are given and the possibilities of replacing the translation of this term are analyzed. The versatile views of researchers on the definition of "sustainable development" are considered. The main sources of the reference base of this category are highlighted. The place of sustainable development among other sciences is investigated, its relevance is analyzed, the motivation for application is indicated and the problems of study are highlighted. The author asks the question of the relationship between the value of costs and the effectiveness of measures for sustainable development.The paper proposes an original methodology for compiling an information map of the vectors of social investment. The article analyzes data on the largest corporations representing various sectors of the Russian business community. The areas of investment of companies are reduced to four main blocks, divided into useful for the business itself or for society, internal and external investments. The article uses a correlation model, which indicates a direct positive relationship between social investments per employee and the volume of net profit.The advantages of the proposed technique lie in the relative simplicity and versatility of application for different profiles and scales of companies' activities. It is recommended to further investigate other variables affecting the size of the income of the analyzed corporations. Using this approach, it is possible to form the basis for awarding a rating to companies for their activities in the field of sustainable development, which will make it possible to more reasonably weigh the causal relationships between aspects of corporate social investment and the performance indicators of companies.
The Arctic shelf has great potential for the development of the domestic oil and gas industry in the medium and long term. In the last decade, increased attention to the Arctic region strengthens its importance, both for the national interests of the Russian Federation and for the world community as a whole, which indicates the relevance of this issue. Meanwhile, the search, exploration and exploitation of new hydrocarbon deposits in the Arctic region is accompanied by a wide range of risks. For all its resource attractiveness, the Arctic is characterized by rather harsh natural conditions that require truly "space" technologies for their extraction. Therefore, solving the problem of technological development of the Arctic shelf will significantly affect the development of technologies in related industries. The purpose of the article is to identify and describe the key problems that hinder the development of offshore hydrocarbon fields in the Arctic. The object of the research is the Arctic projects for the development of oil and gas resources and reserves. The subject of the study is the potential for the transition of the Russian Federation to the stage of active development of hydrocarbon deposits on the Arctic shelf. In the course of the research, we used general scientific research methods (comparison, generalization), methods of logical-theoretical analysis, methods of system analysis. The article highlights a number of problematic aspects of the development of Russian Arctic gas, condensate and oil fields, provides their indicators and characteristics. The paper concludes that the development of hydrocarbon deposits on the Arctic shelf is possible only if all possible risks and impacts are assessed. As a direction for further research, the authors plan to study and analyze the environmental risks associated with the development of Arctic deposits.
The deterioration of the epidemiological situation in the country and in the world contributed to the development of a new segment of the insurance market. It is represented by three main areas of insurance coverage: insurance against the risk of contracting a new coronavirus infection, insurance in case of post-vaccination complications, insurance in case of need for rehabilitation after an illness. Despite the expected high social significance, insurance programs have conditions aimed at establishing acceptable limits of insurance coverage. The purpose of the study is to identify and summarize the main types of restrictions imposed by insurance organizations in the formation of insurance products formed in response to the development of an unfavorable epidemiological situation in the country and the world. The object of the study is insurance products presented in the segment of risky personal insurance of the Russian insurance market, insurance coverage for which is associated with the risk of contracting coronavirus infection and its consequences. The paper presents the most common program conditions with specific restrictive properties. It was revealed that they are constituted by restrictions that determine the potential of insurance and restrictions that affect the volume and quality of insurance coverage. Some reduce the availability of insurance coverage, while others reduce its consumer value. The conclusion is made about the assumption of the facts of the formal formation of the conditions of insurance programs, the inconsistency of market offers with the basic expectations of the population. The completeness of the implementation of the social function of insurance in the segment, the social significance of which was associated with the functional and financial capabilities of insurers to be useful in a situation of justified increased demand for protection from the general population, was questioned.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the development of the state innovation system in Russia and the identification of statistical patterns in the regional development of innovative activity. To identify patterns, official statistical indicators were used, given on the website of the Federal State Statistics Service, as well as data from foreign research publications. The relevance of the problem under study is due to the issues of increasing the competitiveness of subjects, which are based on the optimal combination of forms and methods of state regulation using market economic levers and incentives, as well as based on the geographical, socio-economic, and political characteristics of a particular region. The aim of the study is to identify statistical patterns and features of the regional development of innovative activities based on the analysis of dynamic changes and cost structure by constituent entities of Russia by type of innovation activity. The object of the research is the Russian state innovation system; the subject of the research is statistical data and other indicators characterizing the development of innovative activity within the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The article used numerous statistical methods for analyzing indicators, as well as a deductive research method. An analysis of the dynamic changes in the costs of innovation in Russia, both in current and basic prices, indicates a positive dynamic in the change in the amount of funds allocated to the country's innovation sector to research and development of innovative products. In the process of analyzing regional development, an increase in differentiation between the most developed and “catching up” regions were revealed, and a significant difference was also revealed in the structure of regional costs for innovation.
The article considers the method of management of innovative educational projects in the field of additional professional education. These projects are presented as a means of meeting the educational and professional needs of a person to ensure that his qualifications correspond to the constantly changing professional and social realities in the knowledge economy. Professional education is an important component in the process of human capital development. Special attention is paid to human capital in the era of the knowledge economy. The author substantiates the use of the project approach in the field of additional professional education. This approach is more focused on adult education, involves solving a specific problem in education and implementing an integrated project with the interaction of several target audiences (business, educational organizations, employees, government). This is especially important for the field of additional professional education. The article also substantiates the importance of introducing innovations into an educational project. Since innovations contribute to a higher quality of education and the development of non-standard teaching methods. An innovative approach allows us to consider the challenges of the external and internal environment. This is important in a situation of uncertainty and variability. As the results of the research, the author presents an improved method of managing an innovative educational project in the field of additional professional education, which is based on a value-based approach.This approach allows the author to consider the project as a way to maximize values for customers and stakeholders of the project. Each stage of the method is divided into steps. The author gives recommendations on the use of techniques and tools for the implementation of each step. The author also proposed a classification of types of innovations in educational projects in the field of additional professional education. The components of the educational product that can be transformed with the help of innovations are also considered.
The concept of “environmental competitiveness of fuel energy generating companies (TEGCs)” has been introduced into scientific circulation. A method for assessing the environmental competitiveness of TEGCs has been developed, where, along with known indicators, it is proposed to use the following metrics: the accident rate and incident rate with environmental consequences, the coefficient of care for biological diversity in the regions of presence company, environmental care ratio, environmental protection investment ratio, effectiveness of environmental strategy/policy, effectiveness of environmental risk management system. Approbation of the developed method was carried out on the example of the activities of TEGK of Russia, as a result of which a rating of the environmental competitiveness of these companies was obtained. It is shown that as of 2020, the gap between the first and last place in the ranking is 17.8 times.
At present, the Russian banking system is actively developing. In this context, the issue of using foreign experience in the implementation of banking activities regarding the main profitable banking operation - lending is widely discussed. All over the world, in practice, many different methods and approaches are used to solve the problem of assessing the creditworthiness of a borrower. In practice, banks in developed countries use complex systems for assessing the creditworthiness of potential borrowers, which include a large number of indicators. Foreign commercial banks have tested various systems for assessing the creditworthiness of borrowers. Many of them have stood the test of time and still exist today. Its partial application by Russian banks can give positive results. The retail loan market is growing relatively fast. Trust in credit products is growing, and the financial literacy of the population is gradually increasing. The existing problems are important enough, but often they need to be addressed. Therefore, today the problems with lending to individuals in the Russian Federation are very acute, each group of problems identified by us is interconnected and requires a quick solution. It is necessary to completely solve this problem, since the development of this market depends not only on the state, but also on each of its participants, including borrowers. If you look at this topic from the point of view of banking institutions, the following main problems of the consumer lending market in Russia can be identified. Borrower's credit history. The credit institution must identify in advance the clients who have already granted a loan and have not returned it.
The article analyzes the tax policy of the Russian state, its current state and national peculiarities. Particular attention is paid to the issues of justification of the choice of the model of tax policy, ensuring the unity of its principles, achieving the effectiveness of the tax mechanism. As the tasks of socio-economic development of society become more complex, the issues of effectiveness of tax policy, oriented on elimination of "market failures" and optimization of resource distribution between the state, economic entities and the population become more relevant. Data and methods.On the basis of the analysis of definitions of the concept "tax policy of the state", various models of tax policy, statistical data on the tax burden the main directions for achieving an effective tax system, characterized by the efficiency and proportionality of taxation are determined. Comprehensive and systematic approach to the research with the use of methods of comparative analysis and expert evaluation allowed to reveal the issues of influence of tax policy of the state on economic efficiency in the sphere of business and the formation of relations of social justice in the society. Analysis of the results.For more successful overcoming of negative phenomena in Russian economy, ensuring of social and economic growth it is important to find optimal ratio between direct and indirect taxation, refusal from permanent adjustments in tax legislation, fixation of taxes of fiscal importance to regional budgets, further development of progressive taxation system of citizens, optimization and monitoring of existing tax benefits, increasing of tax literacy level and culture among taxpayers, etc.
The transition of the economy to the sixth technological mode is accompanied by the emergence of global environmental problems, which can be solved by specialists with a high level of human potential. The article considers the question of the formation of the information society as a major factor in the development of human potential, the management of which requires systematic activities in the organization. The impact of environmental management on the efficiency of production, in the transition of the economy to a new technological basis, allows to renew the ability of companies to implement a modern business model built on the principles of environmental standards and ways to organize a system of talent management through the use of educational resources. Based on the analysis of regulatory legal documents in the Russian Federation, regulating the state policy in the economy, as well as defining the requirements in the field of environmental management; sources of scientific literature, research results, such concepts as "information society", "human potential", "sixth technological mode", "environmental management", "talent management" were considered. The development of talent management system in the organization is necessary taking into account the processes that have a positive impact on the development and stabilization of talent is rewarding, education and development, career planning and succession. Innovative breakthrough in the economy is an important component of the evolution of civilization, which should contribute to those forms of development that will implement the survival strategy of mankind and the preservation of the biosphere to the greatest extent.
The article is devoted to testing digital approaches in assessing the quality of mass consumption products based, for example, gasolines. The problem of illicit trafficking in industrial products is gaining the greatest relevance today, since illegal import, production and circulation of counterfeit and falsified products not only contributes to unfair competition in the consumer market, but also damages the economy of the state, misleads the consumer regarding consumer properties and the origin of products, can harm the consumer. The strategy for countering the illegal turnover of industrial products in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 was approved by the order of the Government of the Russian Federation dated February 6, 2021 No. 256-r. Regulatory requirements establish that gasoline must retain its physical and chemical properties for five years - subject to compliance with the rules and regulations of storage. Therefore, if a manufacturer introduces additives into the fuel in order to increase its detonation resistance, then it must use stable chemical compounds. Otherwise, gasoline will quickly lose its quality. The bad faith of the manufacturer or seller is indicated by a strong specific smell of gas, which is often present at gas stations. This means that methane and / or propane added to gasoline is actively evaporating, and the fuel itself obviously does not correspond to the marking.
Economic activity has a huge impact on the environment. Enterprises contribute to the progressive degradation of existing ecosystems, pose serious threats to the biological diversity of our planet, emit dangerous pollutants and overuse existing natural resources, which can lead to their premature depletion. Therefore, in order for the countries of the world to grow and develop in a sustainable manner, there is an urgent need to minimize the negative impact of business activities, households, and society as a whole on the environment. Environmental degradation cannot be stopped only by neutralizing the pollutants produced. Today we need efficient environmentally friendly technologies and production processes, as well as organizational measures that will help create and maintain a culture within the company itself. Effective efforts to reduce our environmental impact should be undertaken by all stakeholders, including designers, engineers and managers at all stages of product preparation and creation. The concept of corporate social responsibility, understood as a voluntary process of taking into account a wide range of social and environmental problems in all types of business activities, as well as in contacts with stakeholders, is gaining popularity in Russia. The development of the concept of responsibility and sustainable development has a huge impact on the formation of pro-ecological attitudes in society. From this point of view, the application of ecological management can rightfully be considered as a concept useful for ensuring sustainable development at the micro level, i.e. at the enterprise level. This can ensure the effective implementation of the principles of sustainable development at the level of socio-economic systems, as well as individual actors involved in the changes.
The consumption of natural gas in the world has shown steady dynamics over the entire last decade and this is a key factor in the growth of the liquefied natural gas market. Increasing the share of natural gas in the energy balance of different countries of the world is associated with a change in the structure of energy consumption: there is a gradual displacement of coal by gas.The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) reduces a large amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere. LNG is a more competitive energy resource due to the advantages in storage and transportability over long distances. The analysis of the liquefied natural gas market throughout the period of its formation and development, carried out by the authors, allowed to identify the main correlations that exist in the global LNG market. Currently, the global LNG market supply is predominantly formed with the participation of several major players: Australia, Qatar, the US and Russia.Against the background of constant growth of liquefied natural gas consumption in the Asia-Pacific region, the demand for LNG in Europe is increasing. The article analyzes the potential of liquefied natural gas production in Russia in the context of exporting LNG to world markets and ensuring its domestic consumption. The role of the largest investment projects in the development of strategically important regions for Russia is considered: the Far East, the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation.In the conclusion the authors presented the results of the analysis of the world LNG market conditions, identified the advantages of the direction of liquefied natural gas supplies to the domestic Russian market.
The introduction of digital technologies into the lives of people, society and business is one of the main trends of our time. Most of the innovations appearing in modern reality are based on the effective use of digital and information technologies. In this regard, the greatest development of the innovation and industrial cluster is possible on the path of digital transformation. The hypothesis of this study is that the changes taking place in the innovation and industrial cluster under the influence of digital transformation also have an impact on the intellectual capital of the cluster. The aim of the work is to identify the impact of digital transformation on the intellectual capital of the innovation and industrial cluster. The object of research is an innovative and active industrial cluster. The subject of the study is the intellectual capital of an innovative and active industrial cluster. The work uses the method of observation, generalization and abstraction. The paper identifies and describes possible means of digital transformation of the innovation-industrial cluster, as well as possible results of digital transformation of the innovation-industrial cluster and their relationship with the means of digital transformation. The means of digital transformation of the cluster are divided into three levels: basic, priority and breakthrough, each of which has its own elements. The results of the digital transformation of the innovation and industrial cluster are divided into two categories: ensuring a relatively stable position in the market and ensuring the breakthrough development of the cluster. The possible impact of the digital transformation of an innovative industrial cluster on its intellectual capital is described. The presented material can be used to create competitive advantages and increase the efficiency of innovation and industrial clusters. It is planned to continue the research in the direction of developing tools for assessing the intellectual capital of an innovative industrial cluster in the context of digital transformation.
The modern Russian economy, functioning in conditions of high uncertainty due to geo-economic and geopolitical turbulence, is distinguished by the absence of significant dynamics of its growth rates. This actualizes the need for new driving forces that ensure economic dynamics. The article analyzes the modern sources of growth of the Russian economy, increasing its stability before fluctuations in the global conjuncture. The task of identifying new sources of development is particularly acute for raw material regions. These include the North-Western Federal District– an industrially developed macro-region specializing in the export of energy resources, which makes it dependent on the situation on world markets. Based on the analysis of statistical data reflecting the socio-economic development of the region over the past decades, it is determined that its economy needs to update and modernize the industrial sector and increase its production volumes, strengthen the innovative component of enterprises, and increase investment. The results of the study allowed us to determine that the development of the subjects of the North-Western Federal District will be facilitated by a balanced economic policy aimed at a qualitative change in the structure of the economy, its deindustrialization and modernization, increasing the innovativeness and competitiveness of all sectors of the national economy, the level of income of the population, the development of interregional value chains. The research is based on the work of domestic and foreign scientists involved in ensuring economic growth and development of territories. General scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization were used as the methodological basis of the study.