In the second half of XX century the world economy shows a transfer to the qualitatively new model of economics based on generating and application of knowledge. This transfer has influenced on the process of long-term structural modernization of economics, appearance of new knowledge-based branches of industry and knowledge-based services (production of new materials, close control equipment, biotechnologies, information technologies, space technologies), attracted the attention of scientists and analysts to investigation of processes in new high-technological sectors and branches of economics. For Kazakhstan, the overcome of commodity dependence, increase of non-resource exports share to 70%, creation of diversified industrial sector, increase of expenses to R&D are the important tasks on the way of the knowledge-based economics forming. In this regard, highly topical is investigation of potential of knowledge-based branches and manufactures. The dominance of branches with decreased dynamics of scientific knowledge and innovations application in the production structure influences also on other components of the knowledge-based economics. The economics with low level of industry diversification, dominance of low-technological branches is hardly able to provide a base for visible growth of expenses to R&D in industry, and increase the level of expenses to R&D in the GDP to the level of that in the industrially developed countries. The current research shows the elaboration of prediction scenario of knowledge-based economics development. The developed scenario allows formulating the conceptual regularities of the knowledge-based sector forming and identify the main trends and instruments of the national economic policy.
Innovative activity of economic entities provides one of the most important directions of development of the domestic economy. The problem of assessing the achieved level of innovation is of considerable interest and is relevant. The purpose of our study was to assess the use of innovations based on the specific weight of organizations that implement innovations in the total number of organizations operating in various types of economic activities in Russia. The study included four main stages. The study was based on official statistical information on 39 types of economic activity for 2017-2019. Economic and mathematical models describing the share of organizations that implement innovations have been developed. The absence of significant changes in the indicators for these years is shown. It is proved that by now almost every fourth organization in our country has used innovations in its activities. The types of activities, specialized organizations that show the maximum and minimum innovative activity, are identified. It is proved that the maximum value of innovation activity of organizations over the period under review was marked by such activities as the production of medicines and medical materials; manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products; manufacture of electrical equipment; manufacture of machinery and equipment; activity in the field of information technology. The minimum values occurred in organizations specialized in animal husbandry; printing activities; water supply, sanitation, waste collection and disposal. The results of our work have a certain theoretical and practical significance. The methodological approach presented in the article to assess the share of innovative organizations in the total number of organizations by type of activity can be used in further research.
The article shows the importance of the transition of the Russian economy to an information platform, since a large share of the budget revenue falls on the commodity market and the country's development is negatively affected by sharp fluctuations in oil prices. The author analyzes various author's approaches to the definition of the concept of "innovation" and highlights the characteristic features of the term. The process of introducing innovations into the activities of various economic structures with the use of information and communication technologies is considered. The innovation infrastructure consists of several subsystems. Their main functions and components are revealed. The main problems of introducing innovations in information and communication systems are identified, which are associated with the low level of state support and the weak development of already known technologies that hinder the growth of the efficiency of the domestic economy. The importance of using information and communication technologies in the city's activities is indicated, since for the successful development of the digital economy, the country and regions need to have high-quality technologies, IP blocks, human and financial resources, smart online production and other resources that are an integral part of an integrated information system. The article also presents the main directions of development and improvement of information and communication technologies in Russia, for example, the development of a system of protection against all types of threats, the use of ERP systems to reduce costs and increase the speed and efficiency of future development planning, the formation of centers for research and implementation of various information technologies, as well as the training of professional personnel in this field. With the implementation of all these proposals for the development of information and communication technologies in the regions, it is possible to accelerate the development of the digital and information society in Russia.
The growing competition in the global financial markets requires significant changes in the activities of traditional financial intermediaries in order for them to remain competitive. The introduction of technological innovations in the financial sector creates for market participants both huge operational opportunities and economic benefits, as well as new types of risks. The main types of risks associated with the introduction of digital technologies in financial activities are considered, in particular, technological risks associated with cybersecurity and the use of the big data system. The purpose of the study is to identify technological risks and review risk management mechanisms. One of the consequences of using technological innovations is not only a reduction in operating costs and an increase in the level of service for consumers, but also a partial or complete rejection of some types of intermediary financial services. The growing dependence of the financial sector on the increasingly active use of information technology leads to the emergence of new sources of systemic risks, especially those associated with the implementation of cyberattacks. In connection with the digitalization of business processes, risks are moving faster and faster through the financial system. In order to increase the level of security of transactions carried out in the financial market, various risk management mechanisms are used; some financial institutions create their own operational security centers. One of the consequences of the spread of technological innovation is the process of decentralization of financial services, which includes decision-making, risk-taking, and accounting. The formation of decentralized network finance requires more attention to the creation of a risk management system to improve the security of market participants.
In the context of the post-pandemic and business digital transformation it is necessary to restructure the majority of the company business processes, including the HR-branding process. It is also demanded to increase investments in visual content upgrading, switching to online formats and employees m-learning, online gamification implementation, intranet leaders training inside the company, and internal social networks improvement. At the same time in the context of developing the HR-brand it is not enough to switch a number of offline events into an online format. A conscious approach to the digital communications and technologies implementation implies fundamental changes in the corporate culture. For a successful transformation and employees digital competencies development, an integrated implementation of digital communications on the digital platforms basis is required in order to create a digital culture. With the help of digital communications new employees are attracted, staff loyalty is formed, and employees acquire digital skills through various online educational formats. Digital services provide an opportunity to evaluate a company human capital, manage the development of each employee, and distribute competencies across the organization key areas effectively. The nature of the HR brand management process transformation consists in accelerated application of rapidly developing information and communication technologies to solve the HR key tasks. The following article describes the possibilities of information and communication technologies application in the context of direct and indirect HR-branding results formation. The process of HR-branding values transfer is not always well understood by the audience due to inconsistency and weak key messages concentration. The following research offers the HR-branding process algorithm by applying modern tools of digital communications and online training formats, which considers a variety of external and internal environment factors.
Until recently, the theory of entrepreneurship and the theory of project management belonged to different discourses: while, in project management, researchers are focused on the project success, in the theory of entrepreneurship, its central issue is discovery and use of opportunities in terms of the modern scientific paradigm – global coevolution. In the early XX century, N.F. Fedorov conceptually revealed projective nature of human activity, and developed the philosophical and anthropological project to contribute to formation of the global coevolution paradigm. Orientation to this paradigm is fundamental axiological difference between innovative entrepreneurship and all other types of economic activity aimed at profiting. The purpose of this research is to study and develop theoretical and methodological foundation for understanding the phenomenon of projective entrepreneurial thinking and its role in the modern paradigm of environmental economics. The main task is to conceptualize the category “entrepreneurial project” as an organizational form of social activities in the modern economic paradigm. The methodological basis of this research is a transdisciplinary approach that combines philosophical and ethical provisions of the theory of synergetics, metaethics, and semantics that underlie scientific studies in the field of entrepreneurship theory. The research is based on the methodological approach providing fusion of individualism and holism methodologies, which allows us to expand issues of the theory of entrepreneurship development in accordance with intersubjective nature of economic reality and environmental economics. In contemporary world, attributes of entrepreneurial activity are personal responsibility, meeting public interests, and resources limitation. They significantly restrain implementation of innovative entrepreneurial activities. Projective thinking in its true philosophical and anthropological meaning let us qualitatively change the approach to solving these problems, i.e. to consider existing limitations as a methodological path to formation of innovative thinking and elaboration of entrepreneurial opportunities with moral coordinates. This shift in emphasis indicates a general need for interpreting entrepreneurship as socially useful activity of great public importance. The theory of entrepreneurship has the challenge for creating a landmark system of the modern entrepreneurial paradigm based on principles of humanism, responsibility, biophilia and education, implying awareness of market participants about the potential impact of their actions on the entire ecosystem . It is necessary to identify particular features of project management, and design specific management concept of project activities.
Transport security is one of the most important factors in the connectivity of the economic space of the country and its regions. This factor is of particular importance for regions with developed recreational activities, as well as leading an active foreign trade. Nevertheless, in the Russian regions, the level of transport accessibility is definitely lower than in a number of other foreign countries. The purpose of this work is to assess the transport security of the regions of the North-Western Federal District and compare them with similar indicators of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland and Norway). The basis of valuation techniques have made the following parameters: the density of Railways per 1000 km2; density of Railways per 10,000 population; transport mobility of the population; the coefficients Char, Engel and Uspensky. The conducted assessment of the transport security of the regions of the North-Western Federal District allowed us to conclude that their low transport security, the main reason for which was the insufficient financing of the transport sector. In Northern Europe, financing is carried out at the expense of higher taxes, the amount of which is determined not only by the tax rate itself, but also by the size of transportation tariffs (2 times more than in Russia). In addition, in addition to the quantitative assessment of the length, qualitative aspects were identified that affect transport accessibility: first, only 38% of the country's road transport routes meet regulatory requirements; secondly, only one third of the roads have a hard surface, which restricts transport mobility in certain seasons and weather conditions, and thirdly, a large wear and tear of the transport infrastructure.
This article is devoted to the most important issue of achieving an innovative breakthrough in the context of the transformation of the economic environment against the background of the formation of the information society in the context of the deployment of the sixth technological order. Humanity, which is entering a completely new era, characterized by a fundamentally different system of social relations, values and meanings, is forced today to give priority to the search for solutions to global problems. The transition to a multipolar world model aggravates the competition of developed countries, on the one hand, and weakens the role of developing countries, making them dependent, subordinate. At the same time, the role of the state in the life of society is significantly reduced. Globalization abolishes borders, eliminates inequalities, and at the same time deprives entire peoples of their national, cultural, and linguistic identity, and erases historical memory. Today, the world is divided into globalists and anti-globalists, but civilization still faces the need to move to sustainable development, which requires an innovative breakthrough not only on the scale of individual countries, but also on a broader, planetary scale. The proposed article is an attempt to answer the question of whose forces this innovative breakthrough should be achieved. It deals with the problem of developing a new theoretical and methodological basis for staffing an innovative breakthrough in the context of the deployment of the sixth technological order against the background of the greening of public and, in particular, economic relations.
The article proposes an algorithm for interaction with a consumer in service organizations (in the beauty industry), in order to improve the company's quality management system. The relevance of the study is explained by the presence of a large negative consumer experience among clients of the beauty industry. Companies need to improve their quality management system, service and implementation of the principle of "customer focus". Developed customer relationships are critical to a company's value in terms of achieving key objectives such as increased productivity, market share and impact. The novelty of this topic lies in the joint use of the digital footprint algorithm, digital marketing tools and basic elements of interaction with customers. The purpose of the study is to propose and test the algorithm "Personalization of the offer for new customers" so that companies increase the level of customer satisfaction, which, in turn, will lead to an improvement in the QMS. Research methods include a survey, studying various sources of information, as well as conducting an experiment to implement the developed algorithm into the activities of a beauty salon and comparing the performance indicators of the company's quality management system "before" and "after" implementation. The result of the research is the developed algorithm “Personalization of offers for new customers”. The use of this algorithm will improve the company's quality management system, exclude the possibility of negative experiences and customers, and bring quality and customer focus to a new level. In further studies, it is planned to consider the need for the introduction of cognitive technologies within the framework of the quality management system. We assume that the use of technologies that interact with human intelligence and contribute to its intellectual development can fruitfully affect the efficiency of the QMS of companies.
The article analyzes the trends in the formation of a new reality in the economy, management, and social sphere in Russia under the influence of the consequences of the global coronovirus pandemic. Special attention is paid to the factors of transformation of social and economic relations in society, which acts as an all-encompassing phenomenon that transforms not only the economy, politics, social processes, but also the person himself. As changes in business, work, education, leisure, and consciousness become more widespread, the issues of institutional support for digital reality, including regulatory and legal regulation, re-understanding the value of real relations between people, the role of the state and individual socio-economic institutions, are becoming more relevant. Based on the analysis of the content of the concepts of "new economy", the evolution of the sphere of life of society and the individual on the basis of digitalization, the main patterns, socio-economic consequences of the development of scientific and technological progress, which is acquiring a planetary character, are determined. The approach to the research from the standpoint of the theory of institutionalism allowed us to reveal the issues of transformation of political, economic and social interaction in society. For more success in overcoming the structural crisis in the Russian economy, the socio-economic growth in importance of the formation of the knowledge economy, increasing levels of public administration, creation of conditions for a large-scale implementation of the synergetic effect of the interaction between the public and private sectors of the economy, the development of the system of economic and financial education of citizens, etc.
Data analytics by BI systems is still a new direction in approaches to working with data, and in many countries, including Russia, it is only now beginning to be actively studied, penetrate the market and be implemented in companies of various sizes and industries. The main goal of implementing BI systems is to provide quick access to data, their storage and analysis for information support for making management decisions. The benefits of implementing BI systems have been most fully felt by Western companies, in which BI systems have been used for a long time and have already been well studied. At Russian enterprises, clear criteria have not yet been formed that can provide certain benefits to the company, thanks to the introduction of a business intelligence system. The effectiveness of using the system depends on the goals of implementation, on how many departments and business processes will be reflected in it, on the conservatism of employees and their digital training, and other factors. So, the subjects of management can make rational decisions to improve the efficiency of economic activities of enterprises. The object of the research is the market of BI systems as tools that ensure the adoption and justification of management decisions based on the collection, modeling, integration, analysis, and presentation of data. The subject of the research is a set of theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of the implementation and use of BI-systems in enterprises. The purpose of the article: to consider the essence of the concept of BI-systems, to determine their role in the modern economy, to identify development trends in the future period, advantages, and disadvantages in use.
After the completion of the implementation of the "Strategy for Innovative Development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020", there is a lag in a number of planned indicators. The needs to identify the problems of innovative development in Russia, to take effective measures for the national innovation system developing and to increase the competitiveness of the Russian economy are becoming more acute. The article is devoted to the study of the Russia’s innovative development features. A comparative analysis of world rankings reflecting the innovative development potential of countries for the period 2010-2020 is carried out. The main indicators of innovation development are the Global Innovation Index and the Bloomberg Innovation Index, the indicators of the formed business environment are the Global Competitiveness rating from the World Economic Forum and the World Bank's Doing Business. In general, during the study period, there is a positive trend in the ratings of Russia. The most positive dynamics are observed in the level of human capital, although there is a slight decrease in this indicator, in the treatment of intellectual property and in the establishing a business implementation environment. The main problems hindering the innovative development of the country include the lack of formation of institutions, lagging behind global trends in the field of environmental sustainability, in particular, energy efficiency, and the underdeveloped venture investment market. According to these problems, the directions of solving the main problems are determined.
There is no single approach to considering digitalization based on the concept of the digital economy. The OECD associates the digital economy with standard industry classifications, in the UK and the USA, the production of goods is taken into account when collecting, dislocating and processing information by electronic means. In Russia, digital data is the main factor of production. Domestic and foreign scientists study the digital economy taking into account the "fourth industrial revolution" and the "industrial internet of things" (A. Biichuk, V. Bondarenko), virtualization and digitalization (V. Ivanov, N. Negroponte). The authors associate digitalization with the structural transformation of the economy during the formation of interconnections between the real and financial sectors due to new digital technologies. This requires considering the impact of digital technologies on the studied sectors of the Russian economy. To achieve the goal of the study, general scientific methods and methods of system-structural, cybernetic and statistical data analysis, the theory of reproduction and innovation, domestic and foreign practical experience were used. The UN proves the direct dependence of the introduction of digital technologies and the existence of effective interconnections between sectors on the level of economic development of countries. With the use of digital additive technologies (3-D print), a significant transformation of the production in Russia of parts of complex configurations as waveguide elements is emphasized. Competitive advantages of agents, incl. ICT sectors are about profit and profitability, innovation potential, digital business models, etc. IT-systems are important elements of interconnection of sectors of the Russian economy. The role of the digital economy in Russia is seen in the growth of economic efficiency based on the informatization of most of the processes and the use of digital and additive technologies for data processing, which will lead to an increase in innovative potential, quality of service and access to new markets and new customers of different entities. This is achievable when creating a system of interconnections of the studied sectors in Russia with the activation of the organizational and innovative mechanism of interconnection of sectors.
Management. Environmental management
Currently, all over the world, measures are being actively implemented to reduce the negative impact on the environment. Analyzing the situation in the world and focusing on individual countries, we can conclude that innovative solutions in the field of ecology are a promising direction of development for the Russian Federation, since in the future they will reduce the negative impact of industrial enterprises on the environment, clean up natural resources, find solutions to existing environmental problems. The article examines the economic problems of innovation through the prism of the current environmental situation. The article describes innovative solutions in the field of ecology, which are being implemented in Russia and the world, and in particular, on the territory of St. Petersburg. The role and importance of environmental management in the activities of business entities are determined, the main problems in the field of greening the economy are highlighted. Sectors of the economy that use environmental innovations are represented. It has been determined that the formation of a "green" economy can become the basis of state policy in the field of ecology. The ecological rating of the regions of Russia is given. The work on environmental education of the population on the territory of St. Petersburg in the framework of the «Concept of continuous environmental education in the territory of St. Petersburg» is shown. The main directions of the concept of continuous environmental education on the territory of St. Petersburg are outlined. The forms of environmental education are systematized with differentiation by age groups. The statistics of the ecological situation in the region are presented. An overview of the planned reforms in the field of ecology, which are planned to be implemented on the territory of St. Petersburg, has been made. Priority directions for the implementation of environmental policy in St. Petersburg have been identified.
Constant development of economy and international space means high market demand for highly qualified personnel, which in turn is under influence of quantity and quality of academic staff. The Federal Law dd. December 29, 2012 No. 273-FZ “On education in the Russian Federation” and Concept of “Comprehensive program of professional development for teaching staff of general education organizations” put emphasis on priority of development and implementation of postgraduate training programs. Change of conception of academic staff training is necessary for providing sound and competitive educational level and staff replacement in modern sciences society and professional sphere. The important tool of postgraduate training program improvement is development of growth strategy using SWOT-analysis. Thus, this paper identified and structured factors and measures that influence on enhancement of the efficiency of the studied postgraduate training program. It is worth noting that the authors conducted reasonable assessment using their own resources and situations occurs based on comparative study of the leading universities such as Higher School of Economics National Research University, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technology, Mechanics and Optics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, resulting in development of key criteria. SWOT-analysis also was used in this research in combination with such methods as multi-factor analysis and questionnaires. The results of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of educational process using matrix defined actions for realization of the opportunities that are aimed at improvement and changing of weaknesses, preventing potential threats and minimizing the risks. This paper suggests preferable strategic decisions that are required for improvement of academic staff training programs for enhancing the efficiency of postgraduate training programs. Directions for future research involves functional strategy of improvement of educational process and study of university educational milieu impact on strategy implementation.
In a globalized and digitized economy, knowledge becomes a key factor in a company’s competitiveness and success. Knowledge Management - the direction of management that has emerged over the past 20 years from the crossroads of multiple disciplines is the creation of an organizational, technological and communication environment, where the knowledge and experience of companies are key to the development and positive impact of operational activities. The knowledge management system encompasses processes in organizational units of the organization, and an integrated evaluation of the knowledge management program is required for its effective implementation. The article provides an analysis of the success factors for the introduction of the knowledge management program, describes the step-by-step implementation algorithm, identifies the barriers that arise in the course of the work and the relationship with the corporate culture, and an analysis of the current state of the knowledge management market and its prospects. An article identified six key conditions for effective knowledge management. In the implementation phase of the knowledge management project, professionals face barriers that can be broken down into three factors: individual, collective, organizational. Most can be overcome by creating and maintaining a corporate culture of trust. Building trust includes defining the company’s knowledge management policy, supporting management, creating an environment for interaction between employees, defining a common terminology, as well as the mandatory development of staff competencies in knowledge management. Evidence-based knowledge management policies help to address the strategic and tactical challenges facing companies and create innovative capabilities, making this approach to the organization of activities one of the main prospects for the development of companies and the economy as a whole.
The article discusses the role of ERP information systems commonly used today in strategic management. The existing definitions of the ERP-system are given, both in terms of the functions performed by it and its significance in the implementation of the organization's strategy. The history of ERP-systems, the essence of MRP and MRP-II information systems as bases for ERP-system creation and their importance in organization management are described. The main stages of formation of the world market of ERP-systems are outlined: development and services for their implementation. The structure of the ERP-system, its basic and extended elements and their functional purpose are discussed in detail. The main advantages and disadvantages of the ERP-system in the context of organization management are described. The directions of positive impact of the information system implementation on the organization's activities are indicated. The requirements to be met by the information system considered by the organization as a strategic management tool are defined. The following characteristics show that the ERP-system implementation is necessary for the organization, and on the basis of which criteria the company management should decide on the implementation and use of this information system. Factors affecting the effectiveness of the ERP-system application in the organization's activities are indicated, as well as the principles of quantitative and qualitative assessment of the effectiveness of the ERP-system use as a strategic management tool are described. The dynamics of the Russian market of ERP-systems is considered, its main subjects are identified: Russian and foreign developers of ERP-systems. The main trends in the development of the domestic market of ERP-systems are shown: import substitution, improvement and individualization of systems, the use of cloud technologies and artificial intelligence, due to the pandemic transition to remote work. Barriers to the transition of Russian organizations from the use of foreign ERP-systems to domestic ones are identified. The leaders of the Russian market of ERP-systems are presented, as well as a forecast of further development of the market.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the service market on the quality management of training of middle-level specialists. The subject of the study is the market of services in St. Petersburg. The objectives of the study are to identify trends in the market of services in general and in the areas of tourism and hairdressing; to analyze the requirements of employers to the knowledge, skills and competencies of graduates of professional educational institutions; to analyze the mutual influence of the labor market and the quality of education; to determine the economic efficiency of using the developed recommendations. The main results of the study were obtained by comparative analysis, as well as by the method of questioning the target groups. The article presents the changes in the market of services under the influence of the crisis caused by the pandemic; the requirements of employers for training specialists in the areas of "Tourism", "Hairdressing". It is established that in order to improve the quality of training of specialists who are able to conduct successful work in modern conditions, it is necessary to analyze the requirements of employers to the competencies of applicants. Taking into account the requirements in the implementation of the educational process will contribute to a qualitative change in the results of training and the release of highly qualified specialists in demand in the modern labor market.
The stagnation of the Russian economy, the existence of which is not disputed by specialists in the field of strategic management, is largely a consequence of the inability of the management system to respond to modern challenges and the lack of skills and abilities of managers at all levels to make effective strategic decisions. The owners and managers of enterprises note a shortage of well-trained managers of various levels, whose work content would harmoniously combine competencies in the field of economics and management and industry specifics. Today, in most cases, we are talking about "effective managers" with economic, financial or managerial training, whose goals are in the field of profitability. Industry specifics of an enterprise and technological trends often go beyond their competence. This applies to many branches of science and technology, where Russia occupied a leading position in the world, and today it is experiencing significant problems associated with overcoming the gaps in technological chains. The purpose of this study is to search for objective reasons for the inefficiency or collapse of ambitious projects in the Russian economy. The object of research is the economy of the Russian Federation. Research methods: analysis and synthesis, desk research. The research hypothesis is to assume the priority of political factors and ambitions of decision-makers in the preparation and implementation of strategic projects. The study of the authors was carried out on the example of projects implemented in various types of economic activity, which increases the objectivity of the conclusions. Based on the analysis of the main stages of preparation and implementation of a number of large strategic, including international, projects, the article concludes that in cases where such projects are associated with huge financial costs, and preference is given to political ambitions to the detriment of economic efficiency, the country bears huge material and moral costs. It concludes with a number of practical recommendations.