Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media

June 2024 (published: 06.06.2024)

Number 2(57)



Эволюция технопарков как движение к экономике, основанной на знаниях Puziychuk S.V. , Rozhdestvenskaia N.V. , Tikhonova A.M. , Zinchenko M.V.

The paper examines the evolution of technology parks as a movement towards a knowledge-based economy (knowledge economy). The process of formation and development of the knowledge economy is associated with higher university education, which constitutes its main part, in the logic of generating innovations and introducing them into the practice of the real economy. Technoparks in this process were initially assigned the role of a catalyst. Since technology parks have existed for more than ¾ of a century, it makes sense to trace their evolution and consider their current state. The presented study aims to conceptually comprehend the existing experience in the formation and development of university technology parks, clarify their role in creating connections between science, business and the state, and also consider other aspects that ensure successful development. The implementation of this goal is based on an analysis of best practices and the potential of university technology parks, including foreign and domestic structures, as well as a number of theoretical works that present concepts that interpret the key concepts and theoretical positions used in the article. The materials for the study were articles and monographs by foreign and domestic authors, reflecting on the experience of existing technology parks; websites of university technology parks; association websites; legal documents regulating their activities. The research methods were description, abstracting, comparative analysis, structural analysis, data systematization, classification. The conducted research allows us to define the technology park not only as a catalyst, but also as a resource for the development of innovation in the economy. Technoparks in their developed state today represent not just an element of infrastructure in a modern university, but an ecosystem. The features of technology parks are determined by the profile of the university (classical, technical, entrepreneurial, pedagogical, etc.), their common feature is the focus on developing modern general professional competencies of graduates for the knowledge economy. The article examines the topical issue of criteria for assessing the performance of technology parks, which allows us to determine their stages of movement towards the current state of the ecosystem. The prospects for the development of technology parks are thus associated with the expansion of the diversity of elements of the technology park ecosystem and their interconnection, which represents a new step towards a knowledge economy.

Оценка объёма импортозамещения и параллельного импорта в РФ Sosnilo A.I. , Yarkina M.S.

The article assesses the effectiveness of import substitution and the use of such a tool as parallel imports. The stability of the Russian domestic market and the autonomy of the country's economy have found themselves in difficult conditions. Thanks to the development of import substitution and the permission of the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation to import goods into Russia through parallel imports, the situation has stabilized considerably. Import substitution and parallel imports contribute to the reduction of foreign trade imbalance. Reduction of imports helps to balance the country's balance of payments and reduce the share of import dependence in the economy. Parallel imports are progressive, allowing to maintain production processes and the operation of entire industries. However, from another point of view, this process completely absorbs all sectors of the domestic market and is an obstacle to the development of domestic production. The relevance of this study is based on the importance of developing effective measures and policies in the field of import substitution and combating parallel imports. These factors are directly related to the competitiveness of Russian producers, the development of domestic production and reducing dependence on imports. The overall objective of the study is to conduct comprehensive research aimed at determining the current state of import substitution and parallel imports in the Russian Federation, to determine their role in the economy, the reasons, and ways of its development. The results of the study allowed to draw conclusions about the need to increase import substitution, as well as the importance of taking measures to combat parallel imports. Recommendations were formulated on the protection of intellectual property rights and the development of appropriate public policy. These results can be used to clarify the directions of further actions in the field of import substitution and parallel imports in Russia.

Актуальные аспекты институциональной теории Уэсли Клэра Митчелла Filatova I.B.

The article analyzes the works of the American institutionalist W.K. Mitchell, whose ideas have so far attracted much less attention from modern researchers compared to the works of his colleagues in the institutional school - T. Veblen and J. R. Commons. In modern conditions, turning to the works of W.K. Mitchell is associated with the development of empirical research based on “big data” and attention to the role of culture in economic development. Mitchell's works are divided into two groups. The first group covers empirical and statistical studies, united by the general thesis that roots in human culture give rise to “social habit” and influence the type of personality opposite to “primordial human nature” (as orthodox theory understood it and built its research). The second group includes many works that emphasize aspects of human behavior and that “good” institutions, which can standardize human behavior, create greater opportunities for collecting and summarizing information and, therefore, controlling economic processes. The article provides an integrated assessment of Mitchell's contribution to the study of problems of the relationship between theory, data and policy in economics. The 21st century is the time of “big data,” which enhances the relevance of Mitchell’s ideas and his insistence on conducting empirical research, where the results of behavioral reactions of various economic groups of the population are of particular value for understanding what is happening and ensuring economic stability in any country.


Финансиализация, изменение климата и экономический рост: современное состояние и перспективы Klioutchnikov I.K. , Klyuchnikov O.I., Molchanova O.A.

The aim of the presented article is to find original approaches to the analysis of economic growth and climate change that arise during the transformation of the process of financialization of the economy. Methods: The research is based on an evolutionary analysis of the interaction of such systems as financialization, economic growth and climate change in the context of ecosystem and network approaches, as well as considering economic, social and environmental expediency. Results: Justification of the need to include nature and environmental costs in the market turnover during the financialization of the economy. The review of publications on the topic, as well as the evolutionary analysis of financialization and economic growth, indicates the transition to a new stage of the impact of finance on development, which has great potential for harmonizing human interaction with nature. Innovative effects of green financing are revealed, as well as new drivers of development and transformational financial processes that put pressure on economic growth and nature are identified. A model has been developed to analyze the role of financialization mediated by economic development and institutions in climate change. Conclusions and Relevance: The following statements are made in this study. 1. Climate change is a global phenomenon, it can be traced through the concept of financialization, which, among other things, reveals the causes and conditions for financing industries with a high level of pollution, as well as defines a green financial transition. 2. Stable stereotypes of financial decisions remain, which are conceptualized as a reflexive resource-cost approach. Under the influence of the current conjuncture, this approach is temporarily gaining strength. 3. The combination of financing economic growth with an effective fight against climate change is within the broader environmental and social challenges associated with creating conditions for sustainable development. 4. The goal of green financial restructuring is to turn the pressure of economic growth on climate change into an innovative driver of development through new financial solutions and mechanisms.

Проблема дефицита Федерального бюджета и налоговые механизмы ресурсного обеспечения развития экономики Chernov V.A.

In the context of the aggravation of international relations, the Russian economy is faced with the problem of budget deficit, overcoming which, when fulfilling the most significant areas of public financing, becomes a necessary condition for maintaining the stability of the economy, which determines the relevance of the study, especially when the purpose of geopolitical aggression is to deplete the Russian economy. Methodological approaches based on the dialectical logic of statistical methods, data from the Ministry of Finance and budget forecasts, and descriptive analysis have revealed key contradictions that hinder the strategic innovative sustainable development of the Russian economy and ways to resolve them based on the fundamental laws of market development, the most vulnerable components in federal budget management and tax administration in terms of deficit coverage and infrastructural support for sustainable innovation development. The problem of the budget system, which arose as a result of international confrontation and defense needs, is investigated. It is not possible to solve the problem without infrastructure support. The author considers the components of the systemic support of the economy with financial instruments. The advantages and disadvantages of the current tax policy are noted and suggestions are made to improve the effectiveness of state support. The key elements of tax regulation to ensure the stability of the country's budget system in the face of increasing risks and threats have been identified. In the content of a number of scientific publications, government measures and Federal projects in the budgetary and tax spheres, the author noted the insufficient identification of key elements of tax regulation that contribute to increasing the revenue side of the budget while preventing an increase in prices for fuel and raw materials resources within the country, increasing the competitive advantages of Russian manufacturers. The priorities in the choice of tax policy instruments have been identified, contributing to the activation of Russia's main advantage – the level of provision with natural resources. In this direction, new opportunities are opening up to reduce the budget deficit, increase the competitiveness and investment attractiveness of the Russian economy.


Интеграция концепции ESG в стратегию менеджмента: мировой опыт и перспективы для России Izmaylov M.K. , Pupentsova S.V.

In view of recent developments in the global community, there is a clear trend towards the introduction of ESG-principles related to environmental protection, improvement of working conditions and improvement of corporate governance in the development strategy of organizations. The relevance of the topic is determined by the fact that the current geopolitical situation has to some extent separated Russian enterprises from the world community, which indicates the importance of focusing the attention of their managers on internal development and the ability to build quality relationships at the macro level, taking into account internal factors, with participation in solving environmental and social problems, with the increasing need to apply the concept of ESG. The purpose of the article is to identify the prospects of development and improvement of the strategic management system of Russian enterprises by introducing the ESG concept, taking into account the generalization of world experience. The authors systematize the world modern trends of strategic planning and implementation of ESG concept in management activity, and also determine their influence on strategic management of Russian enterprises. Strategic directions in the implementation of ESG concept in the goals of domestic enterprises are defined. The leaders of Russian business in terms of the degree of development of management activity of enterprises when using the concept of ESG on the basis of rating RAEX-Europe Agency. The primary tasks contributing to the integration of the ESG concept in the strategic management of Russian enterprises were formed. It is noted that Russia, being a member of the international community, takes an active part and provides support for initiatives in the development of the ESG concept in strategic management.

Концепция, ресурсы и опыт менеджмента технопарков, некоммерциолизирующих инновации Rubstova O.L. , Gyliaeva V.B. , Vakhitova L.R. , Pertaia M.V.

The paper discusses the concept of management of pedagogical technology parks, which is defined as the classical management of a non-profit organization. However, a feature of the activities of such a technology park, which constitutes an innovative element of the infrastructure of a pedagogical university, is the absence of a requirement for the commercialization of generated innovations. The goal of technology parks is to modernize the internal environment of the university, which should allow the formation of general professional competencies. The collected information, its analysis and generalization allow, firstly, to get acquainted in detail with the experience accumulated to date, and, secondly, to evaluate it as an emerging practice that needs further study, on the basis of which it will be possible to formulate relevant methods and mechanisms effective management of pedagogical technology parks. The research method involves the integration of management approaches (management of non-profit organizations) and economics (education as a trust benefit), on the basis of which an analysis, generalization and description of the existing experience in using technology parks in pedagogical universities of the Russian Federation is carried out. The materials for the research are articles and monographs by domestic authors, specialists and experts on the problems of managing non-profit organizations in the social sphere, innovation management; official websites of pedagogical technology parks, legal documents that laid the foundations for the formation of technology parks at Russian pedagogical universities. The study of this problem expands the general palette of possible management solutions for educational organizations in the context of current problems of modern management.

Особенности управления рисками при производстве премиксов Shinalina D.M. , Mishura L.G.

The activity of an enterprise aimed at making and implementing various management decisions to minimize the possibility of hazardous factors that may negatively affect the enterprise is called risk management. Risks are divided into several groups, each requiring the development of specific measures aimed at reducing the likelihood of risks from that group. One of the tools that allows covering several risk groups at once is HACCP. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) is a system that allows for the most comprehensive control of product quality and safety. This concept is applicable to any industry. The relevance of the work is due to the fact that ensuring high-quality standards is one of the most important aspects of any enterprise providing products or services. A well-organized quality control system will reduce the proportion of defective products and lower costs. The aim of the work is to make improvements to the premix quality control system using risk analysis and critical control points. To do this, it is necessary to study the technology of premix production, explore the peculiarities of risk management in this industry, and identify critical control points. The next step is to develop control measures to be carried out at specific critical control points, as well as to set acceptable values. To verify and confirm the proper conduct of all tests, a checklist has been developed within the framework of the work, which contains brief information on the list of necessary quality-related activities. The object of the study is the premix quality control system. The subject of the study is the perspective and rationality of implementing HACCP in a premix production enterprise. As a result of the research, a checklist was developed for quality personnel to focus on important aspects of the control procedure. Subsequently, during the research process, it is planned to test this checklist using a real enterprise and conduct a comparative analysis of the previously used quality control system and the system developed during the research. Commonly accepted methods of study, qualitative analysis, and data comparison were used in the work, as well as the decision tree method during development.

Стратегия развития промышленного предприятия с учетом комплексного анализа деятельности Vasilenok V.L., Martynenko O.V. , Negreeva V.V., Moroz D.S.

The relevance of the presented research is that the amber industry is a promising area of development and a visiting card of the Kaliningrad region. The Kaliningrad Amber Combine is the only enterprise where amber is extracted, processed and sold, and it has no analogues all over the world. That is why it is worth paying close attention to a comprehensive analysis of the combine - a comprehensive analysis, which is an urgent issue today for the development of the amber industry. The object of the study is the Kaliningrad Amber Combine, and the subject is a comprehensive analysis of the Kaliningrad Amber Combine. The purpose of the study: to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the Kaliningrad Amber Combine. To achieve the goal the following tasks were set: to study the development strategies of the amber industry; to analyze the extraction, production and sale of amber; to identify promising areas of development of the amber industry; to determine the efficiency of JSC “Kaliningrad Amber Combine”. As a result of the research the investment attractiveness of the amber industry was analyzed. Investments in the modernization of the enterprise have increased manifold in recent years. The conclusion noted that the cluster supports information exchange, increases the efficiency of the technological process, accelerates scientific and technological progress, facilitates access to technologies operating in the world market and allows to reach a new level of strategic development of the amber industry.

Стратегия развития зеленых технологий российскими компаниями Filatova L.P. , Barbolina V.A. , Moshurova E.Y. , Volkov A.R.

The obvious trend towards the implementation of ESG-principles in organizations is accompanied by the development of green technologies not only in terms of their application, but also in their direct development. The extent to which the technological and scientific base of business representatives is ready for the challenges can be reflected in the landscape of availability and distribution of such technologies. The article is devoted to a quantitative analysis of companies in the aspect of green technology development and its connection in the context of the local environmental agenda. The study is based on a sample of companies according to their participation in ESG-rankings and the number of green technologies in ownership, their segmentation by region of presence and industry. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis of assuming a link between the companies' ESG strategy and regional-technological poviet within the studied technological area outside the subjects of presence of federal cities. According to the results of the study, two types of companies were identified: those realizing ESG-principles with application of green technologies directly in the production process and companies of ecological-technical orientation in their main type of activity, the share of their participation in the overall rating was considered. The connection of companies' strategies within the regional community is partially confirmed for the second category of companies. A ranking of federal districts by the number of companies with green technologies was compiled, based on which the most active sectors in the application of the technologies sought were identified, including the chemical industry, processing of secondary raw materials, and the oil and gas industry. A basis for creating a technological profile of the regions in terms of green technology diffusion to clarify the strategies of companies is presented.

Оценка эффективности национального проекта «Производительность труда Smirnova I.V.

The article examines the problem of assessing the effectiveness of the use of budget funds allocated within the framework of the national project «Labor Productivity», the relationship between labor productivity and such indicators of the state of economic security of the Russian Federation as the labor productivity index; share of investments in machinery and equipment in the total volume of investments in fixed assets; the share of innovative goods, works, services in the total volume of shipped goods, works, services, the share of high-performance jobs in the economy. The low interest of the state in assessing the effectiveness of measures under the national project "Labor Productivity" is emphasized, which is confirmed by the exclusion of such indicators as "Number of highly productive jobs in the non-budgetary sector of the economy" and "Labor productivity in the basic non-resource sectors of the economy" in the indicators for assessing the effectiveness of the activities of senior officials and executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The concept of a high-performance workplace in accordance with the Rosstat methodology as a workplace where the average monthly wage of employees is equal to or exceeds the established value, does not reflect labor productivity, i.e. the economic meaning of labor productivity. An objective characterization of labour productivity is given by the total volume of output, measured in units of gross domestic product, produced per unit of labour force, measured in terms of the number of hours employed or worked per period. This method of measuring the indicator makes it possible to judge the efficiency and quality of human capital, including resources and innovations used in production, however, the cited statistics indicate low growth rates of labor productivity or even its decline. Thus, it is necessary to improve the legislation on national project activities in the Russian Federation to assess the effectiveness of national projects, primarily in terms of the provision and use of federal budget funds allocated for their implementation.

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