Shipbuilding is one of the key industries both for the Crimean Peninsula, in particular, and for the Russian Federation, and is the most important structural component of the economy, since it involves enterprises of other industries in the economic turnover. The development of the shipbuilding economy for Russia is of strategic importance, since the industry not only makes it possible to generate export deliveries of high-quality and competitive products, thereby generating new cash flows to the state economy, but also has synergy with related industries, providing jobs for specialized specialists from other industries industry. Significant restrictions on the import of technology and equipment, as well as the policy of import substitution, which has been adopted in Russia since 2014, have become a certain incentive for the development of domestic industry, and, accordingly, its economy. Nevertheless, today it cannot be argued that the Russian industry has fully adapted to the conditions formed by the geopolitical situation, and its economy is efficient. The Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, which became part of Russia in the spring of 2014, are in the active stage of integration into the economy of our state. Industry, as one of the key drivers of regional development, is extremely important for the dynamic development of the region's economy. Taking into account the specifics of the geographical location of the Crimean Peninsula, shipbuilding has historically been its key sector of the economy. The sanctions regime, under which the Russian economy has been developing since 2014, imposes a number of restrictions on the Crimean industry, which to a certain extent slows down economic development. Taking into account the current external economic and geopolitical circumstances, the authors present the results of a study of the problems and prospects for the economic development of the Crimean shipbuilding industry, and consider the example of the More shipbuilding plant. Based on the results of the analysis, a conclusion and recommendation for the further development of the shipbuilding economy were formulated.
Global trends in the development of the economy with an emphasis on increasing non-commodity non-energy exports and effective work in foreign markets require Russian business entities at all levels - federal, regional and manufacturing enterprises - to make strategic decisions that ensure the long-term development of enterprises and organizations in the service sector and manufacturing industry in to effectively meet global consumer demand and enhance global competitiveness. It is necessary to find ways to maximize the creation of added value by Russian residents both in order to ensure the economic security of the country and to ensure the sustainable development of all levels of management. An important condition for sustainable development is the balance of social, economic and environmental development of the country and the region, which is especially important for the production of sanitary and hygienic products. The emerging market conditions and the general turbulence in the formation of demand for paper sanitary ware during the pandemic served as the basis for conducting this study, the main purpose of which was to identify factors for the optimal supply in the sanitary ware market for manufacturing enterprises and determine the conditions for starting a business, taking into account the needs world market. In the course of the study, an analysis of the domestic market, the dynamics of supply and demand of the market for sanitary and hygienic products in the Russian Federation and on the world market was carried out; studies of the export activity of Russian manufacturers of sanitary and hygienic products were carried out; the main trends in the consumption of sanitary and hygienic products in the Russian domestic market were identified; recommendations are proposed for optimizing the activities of manufacturing enterprises, taking into account domestic and global market conditions. The results of the study can be used by Russian SMEs to make management decisions in the implementation of strategic and operational planning for the production and sale of paper sanitary and hygienic products.
Monetary policy matters in determining the economic behavior of the state, which is reflected both in the population and its well-being, and in the place of the state in the world arena, its economic and, accordingly, national security. This fact confirms the relevance of studying the role of monetary policy in the system of economic security. The subject of this research is monetary policy in the system of economic security. The aim of the work is to determine the role of monetary policy in the system of economic security in Russia. The object of the research is the monetary policy of Russia as a component of the country's economic security system. The methods used in the research are general, general scientific and specific scientific methods. The study reveals the essence of the state's monetary policy, based on the main tools for its application. The main elements of the state economic security system and its relationship with national security are outlined. As a result of the study, it was revealed that monetary policy is an important component of the system of economic security in Russia, which serves as a tool for managing the economic state of the country and the well-being of the population. The literacy of using this tool directly affects not only the entire system of economic security, but also national security. The research results can be used in the analysis of regulatory legal acts in order to identify answers to questions that directly affect the financial and economic interests of the state and, as a result, affect the economic security of the country and its subjects. And also understanding the role of monetary policy in the system of economic security of the state, which is studied in the work, will allow subjects of all levels (households, enterprises, regions and others) to correctly assess their economic state at the moment and build more accurate forecasts for the future, which will affect the effectiveness of their decisions.
Digital transformation is a process that requires constant development and radical changes in the management system and significantly affects on the way of doing business and its information support. In addition, digital transformation involves serious investments and careful organization of the project itself (project portfolio). The purpose of the work is based on the experience gained over many decades of implementing local digitalization projects, implementing corporate systems, building enterprise architecture, etc., to identify the features of organizing the processes of digital transformation of enterprises, to propose the procedure for preparing for the launch of such a project, to determine the composition and content of priority work to be performed at this stage. The object of the study is the enterprise architecture (EA), as a possible, and in some cases, a necessary platform for digital transformation. The conclusion is made about the possibility of using methods and tools for building EA in digital transformation projects, as well as the need to create a well-organized information management system at the enterprise implementing the project. The paper substantiates the need to analyze those areas of the company's activities that are primarily subject to serious changes in the process of digital transformation, although, in principle, it affects all aspects of business management. The digital transformation project of the enterprise is implemented in conditions when the enterprise fully carries out its activities, which is why the best platform for its implementation is the EA, which allows making the necessary changes during the project with the least financial and information risks. The sequence of works to be performed before the start of the digital transformation project is determined, their content and objectives are characterized. Special attention is paid to the initial stage of this sequence of work – the assessment of the maturity of the corporate culture and information infrastructure of the enterprise. It is proved that at this stage, the success of the project is largely laid down, since its implementation makes it possible to more accurately formulate the possible goals of each stage of digital transformation and prepare the enterprise for its implementation. The role of the information service (IT service) integrated into the enterprise management system is analyzed, which determines and performs the majority of the work related to the regulation of its information activities, and also plays a key role in the formation of the strategy for the development of IT infrastructure and the support of the digital transformation project.
At the present stage of development of society, any economic entity requires improvement of the management system, as the volume of analyzed information regularly increases. The relevance lies in the fact that obtaining reliable, complete and up-to-date information makes it possible to increase the level of accounting and information support and economic security of the enterprise as a whole. The article is devoted to the study of the digital economy through the economic security of the subjects of legal relations, as well as hypothetical ways of leveling them. The novelty of the research lies in substantiating the impact of the digital economy on the level of economic security and accounting and information support of an economic entity, which, in turn, contributes to improving competitiveness at the socio-economic level. The research is related to the analysis of trends in the digitalization of socio-economic systems in the activities of legal entities and information flows in general. The paper discusses various principles and methods of strategic management of an economic entity through the digital economy. The subject and two groups of objects of the digital economy are distinguished. The model of the digital economy's impact on economic security developed by the authors is presented, it demonstrates the main threats and risks of information technology development, with an emphasis on the interaction of producers and consumers, state control, as well as ensuring the adoption of operational, tactical and strategic relevant decisions. The introduction of new digital technologies, automated software and the digital economy together plays a significant role in the process of successful development of an economic entity. These elements contribute to reducing the influence of the human factor, the successful implementation of management decisions and the effectiveness of primary information processing.
The paper analyzes the factors influencing the innovative development of the oil and gas complex in order to identify the drivers of digital transformation. As drivers, the paper considers phenomena that directly or indirectly affect the dynamics of the introduction of digital technologies into the business processes of oil and gas companies and their digital transformation. In total, 12 factors were identified that, according to the authors, have the greatest impact on the digital transformation of the oil and gas industry. The factors were divided into four groups: economic, political, raw materials and factors of scientific and technological progress; their systematic analysis was carried out. The object of the study is the innovative development of the oil and gas industry, the subject is the factors influencing the introduction of innovative technologies. Systematization, analysis and synthesis of information are used as methods of scientific research. The study revealed that the strongest drivers are the factors of scientific and technological progress and raw materials factors that have a direct impact on the digital transformation of the industry due to the formation of challenges and new technological solutions that reduce production costs and develop new, previously unprofitable projects. Political and economic factors, on the other hand, have an ambiguous impact due to crises formed under the influence of factors that have the strongest influence on the innovation policy of companies. The results obtained can be implemented in the activities of oil and gas companies in the preparation of digital transformation strategies or to create conditions for the transformation of other sectors of the economy.
This article is devoted to the topical issue of considering the relationship between the innovative development of the region and the level of tourism development in the region. The development of territories and innovative urban solutions contribute to the development of tourism, and tourism, in turn, contributes to the development of innovation and attracting investors, thus, we can talk about a two-way related process of regional tourism development and innovative development of regions. The purpose of this article is to consider the innovative development of the region as a condition for the effective development of regional tourism. The object of the study is the North-Western Federal District, the subject of the study is the level of innovative development of the region and the level of development of regional tourism in the region. To achieve the goal of the work, it is necessary to solve the following tasks: to analyze the conceptual apparatus; to give a brief description of the regions of the Northwestern Federal District from two positions (from the point of view of the region's innovativeness and from the point of view of tourism development in the region); to compare the assessments of the regions of the Russian Federation according to various ratings; to calculate the Spearman correlation coefficient. In the course of the research, the works of domestic scientists devoted to the problems of regional tourism development, the formation of the main trends in the development of the domestic tourist market of individual regions, the study of the tourist potential of individual territories, etc. were studied. Methods of statistical and system analysis, methods of theoretical and practical generalization were used to obtain the main results. As a result of the article, it is concluded that regardless of the methodology for assessing the development of regional tourism, there is a direct relationship between the level of innovative development of the region according to the criterion of socio-economic conditions of innovation activity and the level of development of regional tourism.
Relevance: digital twins are a new reality of the modern economy and an indisputable advantage of robotics suppliers. The aim of the work was to conduct a comparative analysis of approaches to the use of digital twins by two different types of robotics suppliers: system integrators and manufacturers, in order to identify their features and further recommendations for the introduction of the digital twin technology. The object of the study are robotics suppliers: manufacturers and system integrators directly. The subject of the study was the approaches of these enterprises to the use of digital doubles for the implementation of after-sales service of equipment. Data and methods: in the course of the study, methods of comparative analysis, systematization, expert survey, analysis of information sources were used. The expert survey was conducted on the basis of a questionnaire for specialists of relevant companies-suppliers of robots. A comparative analysis of the approaches of two different players in the robotics market showed both similar problems and distinctive features. Analysis of the results: the study revealed a broader approach among system integrators to the use of digital twins for after-sales service of robotics, due to the specifics of their activities: this is facilitated by an integrated approach to supplies, as well as the need to maintain a competitive advantage. The analysis of enterprises and industries where the introduction of digital twins, according to experts, is effective and expedient is also carried out. The study allowed us to confirm the hypothesis of significant differences in approaches to digital twins among integrators and robot manufacturers, but did not provide an answer regarding the algorithm for implementing this technology at different types of enterprises. Further work will be related to the development of recommendations for various organizations regarding the use of digital copies for after-sales service of robotics.
The banking sector is one of the most vulnerable components of the financial system, asitis characterized by high riskiness, since each banking operation creates certain risks for a credit institution. Emerging risks can lead to various losses, which negativeely affects the financial stability of the bank. The object of the study is social relation sarising in connection with the commission of crimes in the sphere of credit and financial activities. In the process of conducting the study, methods of research and scientific knowledge were used: analysis, analogy, synthesis and grouping, comparison method. The analysis method all owe dustoconsiderin detail the various credit institutions, namely the irkey in dicators that characterize the efficiency and performance of all elements of the bank system. The comparison method made itpossible to compare the value sofindicators for 2019 and 2021 in order tostudy the dynamic sofchange sin the situation that took place in the banking sector before and after the introduction of restrictive measures dueto the pandemic. In the course of the study, the level of criminalization in the financial sector was analyzed, base don’t the methods of a simpli fied system of balanced score card sand liquidityratios, credit organizations were analyzed, in particular the irefficiency and financial stability, the coordinated work of all elements of the bankin order to conduct a high-risk credit policy, as well as recommendations were developed opminimize off enses in the bankin gsector.
In-vitro diagnostics is the process of diagnosing various diseases using test kits and analyzers. The in vitro diagnostics (IVD) market is growing at a steady pace as awareness of various diseases grows and the government initiates various plans to reduce the incidence. Most IVD tests are performed in medical and clinical laboratories, but the advent of point-of-care (POC) technology has enabled testing in the presence of the patient and even at home. This technological advancement is driving the growth of the market over the forecast period. Market growth over the forecast period is expected to be driven by factors such as the increase in lifestyle-related diseases, the growing adoption of POC testing, the growing demand for biomarker-based testing, and demand from developing countries. Factors hindering the growth of the market are the increase in sales of counterfeit glucose test strips and strict regulatory approval procedures. The regulatory scenario is of concern as there is a wide range of tools and analyzes that range from Class I to Class III devices. Recently, there have been changes in legislation in the European Region, which has become a serious problem for market participants. There is an emerging trend in the market towards non-invasive prenatal testing, next generation sequencing (NGS), fluid biopsy and circulating tumor cell testing. Markets in India, Brazil and China are expected to grow at a rapid pace during the forecast period due to the high prevalence of infectious diseases in these countries. The purpose of this study is to assess the current global market for medical devices for in vitro diagnosis, identify the main factors and drivers influencing the growth and prospects of this market in the future. To conduct this study, as materials and methods, we used the analysis of these indicators of expert assessments published by specialists in Russian and international journals specializing in the implementation, promotion and development of laboratory diagnostic products. The results of the study determine the key promising markets for medical devices for in vitro diagnostics, as well as the correct vector for the development of the medical industry. In the final part, the main regions with the highest development potential over the next 10 years were identified, and indicators of the dynamics of the global market for medical instruments over the past 5-9 years were determined.
The relevance of the analysis of factors and main directions of digital transformation of innovation projects of knowledge-intensive companies is due to the change in the management paradigm, the search for new partnerships, the need to intensify and increase the speed of adaptation of Russian knowledge-intensive companies in conditions of constant turbulence. Innovative projects remain the main way to achieve competitive advantages. Even during the economic downturn, 94% of companies did not cut budgets and did not suspend innovative projects and digital initiatives. The aim of the study is to develop relevant approaches to the management of innovative projects in the context of digital transformation. The objective of the research is to find mechanisms of mutually beneficial interaction of knowledge-intensive companies to create new or change existing systems as a result of efficient allocation of resource costs, accelerating the product to market, achieving leadership in new markets by aggregating the capabilities of actors in the knowledge-intensive sector. The study considers the author's proposals in terms of building an approach to the formation and implementation of innovative projects in the new economic realities. The terminology of Russian researchers and international organizations is reviewed, and the author's definitions of the concepts of «digital transformation» and «innovation project» for knowledge-intensive areas are given. The paper identifies the main difficulties in promoting Russian innovative projects of knowledge-intensive companies in the global market. A conceptual scheme for the development of innovative projects of knowledge-intensive companies in both national and international markets based on global trends in digital transformation and the current situation of the Russian economy was proposed. The application of this approach will level the global tectonic shifts and reduce their impact on the national economy, providing companies with exponential growth.
The development of the Internet has provided significant changes in the production and management activities of organizations belonging to various sectors of the economy. The problem of assessing the achieved level of application of Internet technologies is of considerable interest and is relevant. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the indicators characterizing the use of fixed and mobile Internet by organizations located in different regions of Russia. The study was based on official statistical information on organizations located in 82 regions for 2020. In the course of the study, empirical data modeling was carried out, reflecting such indicators as the share of organizations using mobile and fixed Internet in the total number of all organizations located in the region; the share of organizations that consider the quality of mobile and fixed Internet satisfactory in the total number of all organizations using mobile and fixed Internet in the region. It has been proved that by now, the average regional value of the indicator characterizing the share of organizations using mobile Internet was 38.4%, and the indicator characterizing the share of organizations using fixed wired and wireless Internet was almost 78%. The absolute majority (almost 90%) of the heads of organizations in which the Internet was used noted its satisfactory quality. Mobile Internet had significantly lower quality (54.2%). In the course of the study, regions were ranked according to the level of access and quality of the Internet in organizations located in these regions. Lists of regions with minimum and maximum values of the considered indicators have been compiled. The results of our work have a certain theoretical and practical significance. The methodological approach presented in the article to assess the level of Internet use and its quality can be used in further research.
As the subject of the study of this article, numerous risks, characteristic of innovation are considered. The subject of the study is risk management methods. The purpose of the study is to identify the risks associated with innovation and evaluate the effectiveness of existing methods to minimize damage from the onset of risk events. During the study, the author set himself the following tasks: 1) provide an overview of innovative risks; 2) consider ways to insure against entrepreneurial (including innovative) risks; 3) analyze and evaluate the state of the market of insurance of innovative risks in Russia. The article gives the concept of innovative risk, presents the existing classifications of risks, provides an overview of methods to prevent and reduce the degree of innovative risks. In particular, the emphasis is on the relationship between the degree of riskiness of the project and its transparency (access to information) for various investors. Also, the level of risk is made dependent on the human capital of the company (i.e., the qualifications and stress resistance of employees involved in the implementation of the project). Among other things, attention is also paid to the types of insurance of entrepreneurial risks common in our country and the problems that insurance companies face in the process of insurance of innovative activities. The features of venture financing of innovative projects in Russia are considered.
The widespread use of the linear model of production and consumption leads to the problem that humanity exceeds the consumption of resources by 50% compared to the resources that the planet can regenerate. As a result, the markets become more and more unstable, the prices for raw materials increase. Repeated use of the same material as a raw material will help minimize the economic damage to the environment. National, regional and local authorities in various countries are increasingly aware of the need to initiate and implement innovations in order to develop industrial symbiosis. However, the concept of industrial symbiosis has received little political attention, although it may have great potential to promote the circular economy and achieve higher resource efficiency in industry. The article analyzes the most successful world experience in the functioning of industrial symbioses. The transition to the principles of a circular economy in Europe can lead to significant resource savings and the creation of new jobs. In Russia, in the case of a transition to a circular economy, a comparable positive environmental and economic effect can be expected. For the sustainable development of the regions of the Russian Federation, the authors of the article propose to apply the concept of industrial symbiosis in one of the regions - the Pskov region. Through the implementation of the project on the formation of symbiotic chains between enterprises of various industries (agro-industrial complex, woodworking industry, plastic production), it is planned to increase the efficiency of production; optimize energy costs and material and resource flows of enterprises; reduce the ecological burden on the environment; reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon footprint.
In the past decade the Financial Technology (FinTech) industry globally has moved evolved significantly enough to enter mainstream in financial services domain. The tailwinds showcase those lines between technology and business are ever-blurring, and players across the strata have realized the importance of technology innovation and are leveraging it to build novel products and solutions for their customers. India has been one of the pioneers of this trend with 2000+ FinTech startups and more than 20 billion dollars’ worth of reported investments. Major drivers of the growth are attributed to macro-economic headwinds, rapid evolution in technology landscape and drastic change in customer demand. Alongside, there are equally interesting challenges to cope with and they are primarily stemming from security risks, rapidly changing regulatory framework, lack of adoption and demographic opportunities. This study relies on the qualitative approach by reviewing contemporary published research articles, reports published by key players of fintech industry, government’s regulatory organizations, and leading newspapers. We find that globally FinTech has moved from startups to a ubiquitous expression for technology-based innovation in financial services. We increasingly see more collaboration and innovation driven by incumbent banks, prominent technology players, and even regulatory organizations in the market. This is especially true for the Indian FS market, as is evident from a few key trends we have tracked. Indian FinTech ecosystem is unique in the way that it is a playground for a variety of players and young FinTech startups are leading the charge and traditional banks countering with improved digital offerings. While there will be differences in the paths each segment and stakeholders within the FinTech industry take, the key success factors will remain focused on customer experience, innovation, collaboration and speed to value with eye on regulatory landscape. It will be exciting to watch where India is headed as the rising power of India as producer as well as consumer of Fintech tools, the key drivers behind this massive growth and trends shaping Indian Fintech industry.
IT industry is growing fast from year to year, which leads to growing competition in the respective market. That is why quality evaluation best practices are becoming more widely appreciated. Relevance of the chosen theme results from the fact that appropriate quality evaluation process is required to make a competitive product in the IT industry. The intention of this paper is to suggest a software quality evaluation procedure for small IT businesses. This market segment does not have a formalized basis for comprehensive quality evaluation. The designed procedure includes five steps: describing a software product, selection of key quality measures of the software product and its source code, selection of appropriate methods for measuring, quality evaluation according to the key measures and calculation source code quality metrics, quality rate calculation. The importance of high-quality source code has been demonstrated by a chart which shows a dependency of total implemented functionality from time in two cases: high-quality source code and low-quality source code. As a conclusion, it is claimed that introduction of quality evaluation procedure does not lead to material costs increase, which is highly important for small IT businesses. There is economic effect analysis of introduction of software quality evaluation procedure in small IT businesses.
The aim of the article is the analysis of factors contributing to viability or to liquidation of small and medium-sized enterprises during the unfavorable economic situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The object of the research is small and medium-sized businesses in Saint. Petersburg, Russia. The subject of the research is the survival of small and medium-sized enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods of research. The article considers the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on liquidation level in Saint- Petersburg in the period from 2019 to 2021. The data received in the journal «Vestnik gosudarstvennoj registracii» were collected, systematized and analyzed. The results of the pandemic impact on business activity are presented based on statistical methods and analysis. The research made it possible to assess the impact of restrictive measures on various sectors of the economy, including innovative activity. The correlation between the use of innovative technologies and business survival during the corona crisis has also been examined and analyzed. Results of research. The results show that the pandemic has had a heterogeneous impact on various sectors of the economy. The pandemic has negatively influenced the industries of manufacturing, financial and legal services, construction, medicine and sports, repair and installation. A positive impact is observed in the sectors of trade, education, rental and property management, transport and logistics, tourism. The use of innovative technologies has contributed to the development of these areas of activity, helping to maintain the position of companies in the market and attract investment for further growth. Thus, the production and introduction of innovations played a crucial role in ensuring the viability of small and medium-sized enterprises during the pandemic period.
Ecologization of the plant production and technology of post-harvest storage of plant products is relevant in terms of implementing the principles of sustainable development, because simultaneously with the production of high-quality food leads to a decrease in environmental impacts, including to climate change. The article considers the use of biopreparations in the potato supply chain, including harvesting, agricultural production technology, transportation, and long-term storage. The purpose of the study was to assess the reduction of the carbon footprint of the potato supply chain with the use of biological control agents, as well as to determine the economic results in comparison with the traditional growing technology. On an example of the Nevskiy variety of potatoes traditional for the Northwest of Russia it is shown that after biological treatment yield increases by 17 %, mass fraction of a dry substance increases on the average by 3,5 %, the maintenance of nitrates, losses at storage that on the whole leads to decrease in a carbon footprint and can serve as substantiation of necessity of application of biological means of protection of vegetable raw materials is reduced.