Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media

September 2021 (published: 22.09.2021)

Number 3(46)



Оценка влияния интеллектуальных транспортных систем на экологическую безопасность транспорта Санкт-Петербурга Anisimova A.I. , Maltsev D.S. , Lebedeva A.S.

This study evaluates the impact of the components of the intelligent transport system of St. Petersburg on the environmental safety of the city in order to identify the most significant of them from the point of view of environmental polluting factors. In the course of analyzing the problem of insufficient provision of environmental safety of St. Petersburg in comparison with foreign cities, it was determined that the level of pollution in megacities is influenced by the presence and development of an intelligent transport system. The ecological situation in St. Petersburg is aggravated every year both in terms of the impact on the airspace and on the soil cover, which have a much longer recovery period than the atmosphere. Consequently, the object of research is an intelligent transport system and its components, and the subject is its impact on the environmental safety of St. Petersburg. In this regard, the work analyzes the components of an intelligent transport system and determines their possible direct or indirect impact on the level of pollution based on their functions. Further research of the components was carried out using an expert survey, taking into account the assessment of competence and the consistency of expert opinions. It was revealed that "smart" traffic lights, automated lighting control, traffic flow detectors and information boards have the strongest impact on ensuring the environmental safety of a metropolis. However, achieving the maximum effect is possible only with a balanced development of all components of an intelligent traffic management system. The obtained results of the study are of practical importance for the development of elements of the policy and strategy of St. Petersburg in the field of development of the transport system in relation to the indicator of environmental safety.

Разработка гибкого алгоритма выведения на рынок высокотехнологичного инновационного продукта в области ортопедии Chudesova G.P., Burdukovskiy V.N.

The fast development of technology, the compulsory personalization of products and their fast obsolescence, the shortening of their life cycle, the continuous emergence of new solutions, and the efforts of companies to continuously improve their competitiveness require successful management of the development process and the introduction of orthopedic products to the market. When introducing a new product, certain limitations must be taken into account and an appropriate predictive scientific method or model must be chosen. The growing interest in high-tech innovative products on the part of most companies is due to the acquisition of competitive advantage and the conquest of attractive market niches. Today, in the highly competitive orthopedic market, developing and bringing out products that combine "innovativeness" and "high-tech" requires a "flexible" approach that will combine both targeting the right market and working with product feedback, which can then become the basis for improving the final product or a prerequisite for creating a new one. The relevance of the research topic is due to the absence in the domestic literature of an "agileble" algorithm for bringing a high-tech innovative product in the field of orthopedics, taking into account the components of "customer orientation" and "product improvement" for a particular patient, and the fact that the long-term and successful stay of the company in the market can be provided by two factors: continuity of innovation processes and bringing new products to market. The purpose of this work is to develop an "agileble" algorithm for bringing a high-tech innovative product to market in the field of orthopedics, which will take into account the post-sales work with the customer and product improvement.

Анализ материальных потоков региона и элементов транспортно-логистической системы на примере Республики Крым Vakhovskaya M.Yu. , Lesnitskaya A.O.

The subject of the study is the incoming and outgoing material flows of the Republic of Crimea, and its purpose is to analyze these flows using up-to-date statistical information for 2014-2020. The relevance of the research topic is related to the rapid changes in the field of logistics of the Crimean Peninsula that have occurred in recent years, the significant lag in the infrastructure of the economy of the Russian Federation as a whole and the Republic of Crimea in particular in the field of transport, wholesale trade, storage and cargo processing from modern requirements, as well as the need to develop balanced decisions regarding investment in the objects of the transport and logistics system of the country and the region. Different types of infrastructure facilities often work without interconnection with each other, possible advantages in the form of synergy of interaction are not used. The main methods are analysis and synthesis, description, comparison, statistical analysis, tabular and graphical methods for visual representation of research results. The information base of the study was the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation, materials of scientific and practical conferences and seminars, statistical data of Rosstat, Internet resources and the authors ' own research. The most significant results of the study are to identify the most important development trends, characterize the main elements of the transport and logistics system of the region, formulate conclusions about the causes of the current state of the transport and logistics system of the peninsula and material flows, as well as possible prospects for their development. The present study has practical significance, which consists in the possibility of planning and implementing measures to improve the organizational and managerial mechanism for creating regional transport and logistics systems in the real conditions of the Republic of Crimea.

Институт доверия и институциональные проблемы при построении инновационной экономики в России Gurianov P.A.

The article conducted a study of the issue of the institution of trust through the lens of innovative formation of the modern economy and established the significance of its role in management processes at various levels of economic aggregation. Building an effective model of the economy should be based on intellectual capital and the knowledge economy. Trust is inherited and actively developed at school and especially at universities. The institution of trust is one of the key factors determining the success of the entrepreneurial activities of business entities. It also creates a desire for innovation in enterprises. At the end of the 80s, mistrust between individuals and economic agents began to increase greatly in the USSR, which flowed into a significant decrease in the gross domestic product and well-being of citizens. The author's concept of the mechanism for developing, developing and managing customer trust on the basis of the digitalization mechanism has been formed. It is determined why a significant role in building trust in the company belongs to top management. Responsibility for developing the appropriate culture lies with the functional responsibility of management, and then is allocated to each employee. The study found that confidence and mistrust factors exist at all levels of interaction: both in the internal environment of the organization and in the market, society, the state and beyond. The study also analyzed the rating of the institution of trust in state institutions of individual countries of the world. We have it below average. Foreign publications have proved that the institution of trust and social capital as a whole lead to an increase in the growth rate of the economy.

Программно-аналитический система прогнозирования и оценки реализации инновационных процессов в интеграционных формированиях Kirillova E.A. , Lazarev A.I.

The analysis of changes in the external and internal environment of organizations, requirements for ensuring long-term sustainability and competitiveness in modern conditions suggests the need to develop instrumental support for decision-making support processes in the implementation of innovative projects of cooperative formations. Significant expenditures of technical and time resources allow us to determine the priority problem – the insufficient development of systems for reducing uncertainty in interaction with the processes of scientific and industrial cooperation, which determine the disproportions of the resulting economic indicators of the functioning of innovative activity in the region. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool that allows solving this problem. During its implementation, the fuzzy logic apparatus, methods of analyzing and processing large, fuzzy data, the implementation of parallel analysis algorithms in cluster operating systems and the C Sharp programming language were used. The proposed solution is an implemented multiplatform software for neuro-cluster analysis of multiformat data, which is based on fuzzy data prediction algorithms based on a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous model. An important feature of the implemented software is an algorithm for optimizing the processing of predicted data, based on distributed analyzing of big data using Microsoft Server operating systems. The tool developed as a result of the study for evaluating the implementation of innovative processes will make it possible to increase the efficiency of the functioning of economic entities in the region by making management decisions based on the principles of optimality and balance of information in the implementation of innovative processes.

Предпосылки и проблемы развития альтернативной энергетики в субъектах Европейского Севера России Lebedeva M.A.

Alternative energy is an integral part of the concepts of green economy and sustainable development, as it plays a crucial role in achieving the goals to combat climate change. In Russia, the relevance of the development of alternative energy is due not only to environmental problems, but also to energy supply issues, which are especially acute in the north of the country. Among all the northern territories of Russia, the European North of Russia deserves special attention as a region with a huge geostrategic and natural resource potential, but at the same time, it has a number of environmental, economic and energy problems. The purpose of this work was to identify the prerequisites and problems of the development of alternative energy in the subjects of the European North of Russia. As a result of the study, it was found that the European North of Russia is an energy-deficient region (it can only meet domestic energy needs by 96% at the expense of its own capacities). At the same time, the territory under consideration has the necessary resources for the development of renewable energy, as well as potential demand for it. It is revealed that the main barriers limiting the development of alternative energy in the European North of Russia are weak investment attractiveness; perception of the territory of the European North of Russia as a raw material storehouse (a large supply of fuel and energy resources); location in the non-price zone of the wholesale market, which limits the amount of state support, as well as the need for additional costs to neutralize the weather and climate factor. In addition, it was determined that in regions where both traditional and alternative energy are used, electricity tariffs are lower than in subjects with exclusively traditional energy. In the managerial aspect, the results of the analysis of strategic documents show some inconsistency of priorities for the development of alternative energy at the federal and regional levels.

К вопросу о структуре сбора, сортировки и транспортировки вторсырья в тренде перехода к экономике замкнутого цикла Belinskaya I. V., Makarenko E.D.

The transition from the traditional model of economic development of society to the strategy of sustainable development is a global trend. Currently, the leading course in this direction is the "green" economy and the solution of the problems of collection, sorting, transportation of waste and recycling. Practical measures in the implementation of the principles of ecology are actively carried out in many countries of the world, however, the Russian Federation is characterized by a low rate of implementation of innovative approaches to organizing the collection and processing of household waste. At present, only 6-8% of solid municipal waste is recycled in Russia, and even then, mainly in big cities. The main goal of the waste management reform is to form a structure that will maximize compliance with the principles of a circular economy and move in this direction, these principles allow minimizing waste and other types of environmental pollution. For this purpose, the article presents the results of the analysis of certain theoretical aspects and practical steps of the initial stage of the reorganization of the waste management sphere in the Russian Federation and formulates proposals for some adjustment of the structure of the integrated system of solid municipal waste management (CSW MSW) through the mechanisms of the socio-economic and state approach.

Внутрирегиональная асимметрия: исследование инструментами пространственного анализа Patrakova S.S.

Reducing the level of interterritorial asymmetry and disproportions, ensuring a balanced spatial development of regions and local territories are among the strategically important tasks for Russia. The need to solve them is emphasized not only by the scientific community, but also by the authorities and local self-government. The purpose of the study is to identify and assess intraregional asymmetry using spatial analysis tools on the example of municipalities of the Vologda region. The object of the study is the region as a complex socio-economic system, the subject is intraregional asymmetry. The calculation of spatial autocorrelation based on the global and local Moran indices for the indicator "the number of permanent population" on the example of the Vologda region allowed us to obtain the following results. It is revealed that the distribution of the population of the region is currently characterized by asymmetry and positive spatial autocorrelation, i.e. municipalities are not located randomly, but form clusters. It is determined that the GO MO "The City of Vologda" and the GO G. Cherepovets, Vologda, Cherepovets and Velikoustyugsky districts are the points of concentration of the human capital of the region, the largest nodes of the settlement framework and the centers of concentration of economic activity. It is established that the districts of the North-East of the region (with the exception of Velikoustyugsky) form a cluster of territories with a relatively low number of permanent population. The continuing infrastructural, socio-economic, demographic problems of these territories determine the further strengthening of spatial unevenness in the level of socio-economic development of municipalities and the asymmetry of population distribution, which ultimately reduces the possibilities of ensuring a balanced spatial development of the region. The methods of analysis, synthesis and generalization of the received information, economic and statistical analysis, as well as graphical and tabular methods of data visualization were used in the work. The information base of the study was made up of data posted on the official websites of the Federal State Statistics Service and its territorial subdivision in the Vologda region, as well as information from specialized sites for calculating the distance. The methodological basis of the study was the works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of regional and spatial economics. The results obtained in the course of the study can be used by regional authorities in the framework of improving the policy of socio-economic development of the region, as well as by researchers and other interested persons when conducting research on similar topics.

Человеческий капитал как драйвер развертывания новой индустриализации Potiagailov S.V. , Guzyr V.V., Vorobyova E.S., Yusubova Z.A.

This article examines certain problems of structural transformation in national and world socio-economic systems. The authors decided to consider options for applying an innovative approach to basic existing industry and service sector to minimize and eliminate existing systemic problems based on a theoretical analysis of the experience of foreign countries and principles of counteracting negative structural shifts. The article discusses some options for which implementation of modernization actions is possible. The main element here is structural policy. It singles out human capital as a toolkit for counteracting some negative consequences of transformation processes. These processes are related to the emerging conditions for the formation of new technological structures. The authors of this work propose to consider human capital as a connecting link in existing and emerging socio-economic relations between elements of emerging system. New economic realities indicate need for continuous development of a new socio-economic system. A person becomes a connecting part of a new system of economic relations. The authors conducted a study on the principles and factors of formation of modern human capital in context of renewal of generations and development of modern technologies. The authors considered institutional side of formation, reproduction and preservation of human capital in some framework in direction of structural policy. Some methods of stimulating development of human capital as a socio-economic entity have been described. In the conclusion of the article, the ultimate goal of human development is described as a socio-economic unit of emerging system of trade and service relations within some framework of natural technological development. The authors made certain conclusions within some framework of theoretical study. This article presents possible options for stimulating development of human capital and result of this investment process.

Образовательные кластеры как инструмент развития экономики региона Prihodko R.V.

In the world economy, it has long been necessary to ensure a close continuous connection between science, education and production in order to improve the quality of training of future specialists, to bring the educational process closer to the specifics of production and the results of research and development carried out in this subject area. Educational clusters, which have become quite widespread in the world economy and are gradually spreading throughout Russia, are called upon to solve this problem. They are created mainly in knowledge-intensive sectors of the economy and in those cities where there are large universities and technology parks. The main feature of clusters is their concentration in a particular region and binding to a certain place. In the future, it is assumed that clusters will be the defining link in the country's economy and they will account for up to 90% of all R & D activities. But in educational clusters, the main system-forming role, as a rule, is played by universities. This allows us to bring the educational process closer to practical and scientific activities and at least partially resuscitate university science in Russia, which was so badly damaged in the post-Soviet years. The clients of R & D and future employers of graduates in clusters are leading industrial enterprises of the region. At the same time, they are the main source of investment. Unfortunately, in our country, the process of cluster formation is faced with certain difficulties, due to the lack of their regulatory and legislative regulation, the lack of thoughtful goals and objectives, as well as the sometimes different directions of interests of participants.

Осведомленность об устойчивом использовании национальных природных ресурсов как основа для систем защиты окружающей среды: экономические аспекты и новый глобальный индекс популярности экологических запросов (GIPEQ) Shemetev A.A.

The most popular in science “Environmental Performance Index” (EPI) is too narrowly specific. EPI might only be popular in a limited number of countries, this research reveals. This index is designed to assess the sustainable use of natural resources and the effectiveness of environmental protection systems. This index has collected the most advanced scientific researches with an impact factor in this area. However, its actual application might be limited among narrow specialists in 11 countries, this research reveals. This study proposes a new index. This is a global index of the popularity of environmental queries (GIPEQ). It shows the cumulative global popularity of environmental queries for the world as a whole and for each country separately (from the search engines like Google). It might also be applied as an EPI index deflator for the time series analysis. The algorithm for creating the GIPEQ index is written in the R programming language for this study. Data privacy is ensured by using a percentage of the absolute maximum value. This approach allows working with confidential data. This study is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 discusses why the EPI is the most advanced study for assessing the sustainable use of natural resources and the effectiveness of environmental protection systems for every country in the world. The second part discusses the shortcomings of the EPI index. They include the impossibility of analyzing time series (the method for assessing the index changes significantly every year) and a significant amount of missing data in the most basic components of the index. This is shown by using the example of assessing the quality of water and fish resources (out of almost one and a half thousand components of the EPI index). The third drawback is the popularity of this index among the public, this research suggests. A new index (GIPEQ) is proposed and the necessity of its application is justified in the third part of this research. Widespread public demand for environmental programs creates pressure for politicians. This pressure should stimulate them to develop a system of sustainable use of natural resources and environmental protection. The research question: what indicator could estimate the popularity of ecology and environmental programs in the world? The additional research question is how to estimate it? The main hypothesis is that this indicator could potentially be used for estimating the time series of the complex EPI by estimating the EPI deflator. Deflating the EPI from a specific period is the only known way to control for the time-series analysis for the EPI indicator, this research suggests. The main assumption is that this indicator could potentially be used for estimating the pressure of the public opinion to policymakers for stimulating the development of ecological programs that will be seen through the better environmental performance criteria.

Методика анализа качества слуг Shimokhin A.V.

This article examined the universal indicators of the quality of services in various areas: time indicators, indicators of compliance with various requirements, indicators of service quality and availability. The existing indicators in the normative literature for assessing the quality of services are considered. Indicators common for all types of services are highlighted. These metrics have been refined in terms of customer value. Statistical quality management tools are proposed for assessing quality by time indicators of service performance and compliance with requirements. Checklists have been developed to collect information that is used to build Pareto charts. It is noted that these indicators and tools provide the ability to determine losses, from the point of view of the theory of lean production, associated with the irrational organization of the process of providing a service, due to the absence or expectation of a tool, material or parts. This methodology should allow managers to identify problem areas and work involved in the service delivery process. It is noted that CSAT (Customer Satisfaction Score) and NPS (Net Promoter Score) methods are applicable to assess service and availability indicators. The proposed methodology makes it possible to implement the PDCA cycle, which in general becomes the basis for the implementation of a quality management system at an enterprise in the service sector.

Модель бережливого потребления «5 S» в условиях развития «зеленой» экономики Shirinkina E. V.

The relevance of the study is due to the fact that an important condition for the transition to a "green" economy is responsible consumer behavior. Changing the usual way of life can have a serious impact on society as a whole, and many people understand this – but they do not always know where to start. Making eco-friendly decisions in everyday life is not as easy as it seems. On the one hand, every person today is expected to pay attention to the impact on the environment. On the other hand, the topic of ecology unites many extremely complex theoretical and practical questions to which there are no unambiguous answers. As a result, it is not always clear exactly how to act, and how-in any case, it is not worth it. Therefore, when forming a point of view, entering into discussions and choosing products, it is important to think critically, question information and check its sources. In this regard, the author highlights the formation of the philosophy of a waste-free lifestyle in the context of "Industry 5.0", presents methods of lean consumption in the 5S format. The empirical basis of the research is the UN research and the scientific works of Jean Baudrillard. The practical significance of the research is aimed at solving many environmental and social problems that require collective efforts. The concept of lean consumption, which is familiar to manufacturers, takes on a new semantic connotation.

О развитии экономики с опорой на высокотехнологичные отрасли обрабатывающей промышленности Sidorov M.A, Rumyantsev N.M. , Lukin E.V.

The article considers the possibility of developing the economy by stimulating the electronic industry. Electronics is a strategic branch of mechanical engineering associated with the creation of electronic equipment, modules, components and embedded software. The development of this industry is necessary for building a modern competitive economy, it is especially important to develop new production facilities, since at the moment a large share of its consumption in the production of products is import. The conclusion is made that the effectiveness of stimulating the driver industries is significantly underestimated due to the prevalence of imported products in their consumption, the calculation of the additional economic effect of the transition to the electronic component base of domestic production is carried out. The higher speed of implementation of modern developments in vertically integrated leading companies of the leading countries of the industry was noted, the great role of the active participation of the state in this process was emphasized. In the course of the study, the importance of overcoming stagnation in the Russian electronic industry was noted, the effect of implementing the measures planned in the industry development strategy was assessed. Almost the entire direct effect of the projected demand growth will be in the Central, North-Western and Volga Federal Districts. The observed significant territorial imbalances dictate the need for more rational and effective development of the remaining territories, taking into account their specifics. It is determined that the main result of the planned increase in output will be the possibility of transforming the national economy in the direction of increasing the share of high-value-added industries producing high-tech products, and the subsequent growth of domestic consumer demand for goods and services.

Смарт-контракты в инновационных бизнес-процессах Индустрии 4.0 Zharinov Igor Olegovich

Business strategies for the development of companies in the digital economy define new principles of interaction between manufacturers and consumers, revealing the innovative potential of cyber-technologies, smart contracts and smart products used in e-commerce and electronic high-tech business. Changes in the principles of value creation and distribution actualize research on the problem of introducing hardware and software automation tools and information web-resources into the chains of product life cycle stages, focused on the production and sale of smart products to the end user or on logistics arising in the business relations of digital, smart and virtual factories. A means of financial and technological control of the operational activities of factories, which combines the business processes of cyber-design, cyber-production and cyber-maintenance of products, is a smart contract that is executed automatically on a computing platform hosted in a cloud environment. Smart contracts act as a digital contract that aggregates and processes data collected in a decentralized manner by product, technology, user, etc. oracle applications that communicate with industrial cyber-physical systems, payment systems, and the consumer community. This research is devoted to the development of business solutions that are relevant for the organization of contractual market relations that arise between Industry 4.0 factories and consumers and are regulated by smart contracts in the segment of industrial production of high-tech mass-demand products and customized products. The results of the research are in demand in business processes focused on the use of advanced tools and technologies that automate the commercial cycle of interaction between companies and consumers.

Характеристика системы трансфера технологий Российской Федерации Kirisheva V. A., Gavrilyuk E.S.

In the context of digitalization and the transition to an innovative model of economic growth, the issues of developing priority areas of the economy are becoming particularly relevant. The transfer of innovative technologies and knowledge is one of the tools that contribute to the intensification of innovative processes. The continuing raw materials orientation of the Russian economy has a negative impact on the development of non-resource industries. An important process in the development of the national innovation system is the management of technology transfer, which is represented by a multidimensional system of transfer of intellectual property objects and innovations. The article describes the specifics of the Russian technological transfer based on comparison with international experience. The purpose of this work is to identify the place and develop recommendations for improving the competitiveness of the results of intellectual activity of the Russian Federation in the global rental of high-tech products. The practical result of this work is the calculation of the dynamics of exports of high-tech products and a comparative analysis of indicators with leading countries in the field of technological transfer. At the end of the article, measures are outlined to improve the competitiveness of Russian innovative products. The main methods used in the study are the method of collecting and analyzing statistical data, the method of system analysis, the method of comparative analysis.

Management. Environmental management

Диагностический аудит для целей внедрения систем экологического менеджмента по стандарту ISO 14001 Prituzhalova O.A.

A so-called diagnostic audit can give the management of the organization information that can be extremely useful when making decisions about how viable it is to implement the environmental management system (EMS) and to identify the main ways in which the EMS will be developed. The object of the study is a diagnostic audit for the purpose of implementing EMS according to ISO 14001; the subject is the relevance and potential advantages of conducting of this type of audit, its methodological features, and its content. The research seeks to clarify the methodological features of diagnostic audit of an organization for the purposes of subsequent implementation of the EMS (the formulation of its purpose, objectives, scope, criteria, etc.). These purposes include the definition of requirements for the content of a diagnostic audit and the identification of the potential of a diagnostic audit. The study was carried out by using general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis), as well as the method of analysing the content of ISO 14001 requirements and Russian legal requirements for the activities of enterprises and organizations in terms of environmental management. Some recommendations regarding the content of the diagnostic audit are given in the EMS standards. However, they do not cover all the subject areas of diagnostic audit; therefore, in order to harmoniously integrate the organization into the framework of ISO 14001 requirements, diagnostic audit for the subsequent implementation of EMS should be carried out through a piecemeal review of the existing environmental management system in the organization (documentation, resources, accepted practices, procedures for the allocation of environmental responsibility, environmental planning, internal audits, etc.) as the foundation of the future EMS. The results of the diagnostic audit can be used to improve the organization's activities in the spheres of information and science, organization and management, finance and economics, and society and politics. The developed list of environmental documentation and managerial practices, whose presence, essence, and effectiveness it is advisable to assess during the audit, will allow organizations to perform a diagnostic audit for the purpose of implementing EMS without resorting to external help.

Анализ бизнес-стратегии южнокорейского холдинга Amore Pacific Chudnova O.A. , Pak K.S. , Oleinik E.A.

Currently, there are a huge number of companies that produce products that are identical in functionality. It is quite difficult for companies to take a strong position and fully function in the modern economic space. In this regard, an effective business strategy is needed due to the fact that constant competition and customer satisfaction require not only production improvements, but also the use of marketing tools that contribute to the active promotion of goods on the market. The purpose of this study is to analyze the business strategy of the South Korean holding Amore Pacific. The object of the research is the Amore Pacific holding, and the subject is their business strategy. The methodological basis is the 4P concept, STP model and SWOT analysis. In the course of the study, it was revealed that the greatest risk for Amore Pacific is the combination of the company's weaknesses with the potential threats to it. To solve the resulting problems, it is necessary to direct the greatest amount of the company's resources to advertising through Russian and European bloggers, hold promotions and master classes, and also launch the sale of sets of miniatures with the possibility of testing them. The emphasis on B2C sales will allow the company to get closer to the consumer and attract the attention of consumers with its own promotions that stimulate sales. Strengths combined with opportunities allow us to minimize any risks faced by the company and to carry out the most effective activities to expand the sales market. Combining strengths with threats also mitigates risks or their impact on Amore Pacific. The interaction of weaknesses and opportunities allows the company to launch a new segment of production, as well as find new ways to popularize products.

Совершенствование системы управления качеством в организациях здравоохранения Vasilenok V.L., Negreeva V.V., Kochegarova T.S., Aleksashkina E.I.

The subject of this article is research related to the provision of high-quality medical care, which in the future can lead to effective management of the entire healthcare system. The relevance of studying this issue and conducting research using lean technologies indicates the great importance of the healthcare industry for the state and society. The purpose of the study is to develop an algorithm for the introduction of lean technologies in the activities of medical organizations. The subject of research in the article is represented by a quality management system in the healthcare system, created on the basis of lean technologies. The concept of lean manufacturing has been implemented in the healthcare industry for more than 20 years. During this time, patterns were identified. Thus, there is an increase in the level of patient satisfaction from the implemented technologies, which was revealed through the analysis of opinions and reviews of consumers of services. There is also a reduction in the waiting time of patients by minimizing time losses, reducing the number of errors in the provision of medical care and reducing costs. However, there is a decrease in the level of staff motivation, which in the future may negatively affect the quality of services provided. The system is implemented in stages: starting with an analysis of the current situation and ending with obtaining a certificate. The implemented quality management system must meet all the requirements of the GOST R ISO 9001-2015 standard. Also, quality management tools can be used in the implementation process: the Ishikawa diagram, tools 5W1H and 5 "Why?". The main difficulties in implementing lean technologies in the activities of a healthcare organization are the lack of proper training, a low percentage of staff involvement and motivation, incorrect selection of working group participants and the reluctance of staff to give up old habits. Therefore, you should use a clear algorithm that will take into account all the problems.

Проблематика эффективности предприятий судостроительного комплекса современной России Vetrova E.N., Shnankina S.N.

In the context of innovative economic development, the issues of sustainable growth and strategic efficiency of enterprises are becoming one of the most important. Shipbuilding has always been one of the basic, strategically important sectors of the Russian economy, which has a great scientific, technical, and production potential, and is able to influence the development of a number of other industries. Before the collapse of the USSR, the country was one of the leading shipbuilding powers and had strategic competitive advantages in such areas as nuclear shipbuilding, the construction of ships and hydrofoils and hovercraft, and others. Now, the Russian shipbuilding industry is experiencing a whole range of systemic problems that are caused by both external and internal subjective and objective factors. Based on the analysis of individual profitability indicators, the article shows the inefficiency of the industry's enterprises, especially in the field of civil shipbuilding. One of the key reasons for the low profitability and unprofitability of enterprises is the lack of state regulation, modern legal and regulatory framework for pricing mechanisms for the construction of sea and river vessels. The inconsistency of the existing regulatory, methodological and legal framework, which does not take into account the specifics of shipbuilding, such as a long construction cycle, low serial production, and the lack of modern standards for calculating labor intensity, do not allow enterprises to accurately calculate costs and justify them to the customer at the stage of agreeing on the price and terms of the contract. As a result, during the construction of ships, customers and shipbuilding companies are forced to postpone deadlines, revise the amount of funding, and often, if the price is "firm", incur losses. The theory and methodology of pricing, despite their huge role in the economy of the enterprise and significant attention to it in the scientific and methodological literature, does not make it possible to solve all the problems of shipbuilding, which is primarily associated with the specifics of shipbuilding, as well as with some overregulation and backwardness of the enterprise management functionality. The authors carried out a systematization of problems, their causes and possible directions for solving pricing problems. At the same time, the significant role of state regulation is emphasized.

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