In the analysis of domestic and foreign experience of greening on the subject under consideration, it is determined that most of the developments of domestic and foreign specialists relate mainly to technological processes, but do not take into account the management aspects and directions of their economic stimulation. In addition, many issues remain unsolved, including the areas of greening of enterprises in terms of emissions into the atmosphere and waste management. This legislation does not establish the rate of payment for the emission of grain dust into the air. In this article on the basis of the analysis of grain complex technical and economic indicators of the enterprise are considered and the main problems of development are revealed. The authors show the generalization and systematization of the provisions on the greening of the processes of activity in the grain complex of the country in terms of the impact on the air and waste generation. The economic assessment of the proposed principles in terms of the rates of emissions and recommendations on measures to improve technological processes. Developed by the introduction of raising factors in the calculation of rates of payment for solids and grain dust, a scheme of organization of activities in the evaluation of the possibility of using grain dust waste as a by-product and their disposal. Greening of production processes is directly related to the economic component, as economic incentives and government regulation will lead the company to the need to ecologize production processes and form a new organizational mechanism of environmental protection.
The company implementing the innovative project inevitably faces emerging risks at each stage of its implementation: high interest rates on long-term loans, lack of high-tech equipment and materials in the domestic market, lack of specialists, financial resources, lack of demand for a new product. The company's management or top managers need not only to anticipate and calculate the upcoming innovative risks as much as possible, but also to propose measures to manage these risks. The article proposes one of the options for systematization of risks for the company that implements an innovative project. The proposed classification of risks is based on the idea of risk isolation in the context of the stages of implementation of the innovation project. One of the significant risks of the innovation project is the lack of financial resources. Failure to provide innovative development with financial resources is a serious problem at the stage of company formation. One of the ways to solve the problem is venture financing. The article analyzes the possibilities of financing innovative business through venture capital in Russia. It is revealed that the most popular sector among the funds for investment is information and communication, the total share of investments is 71% of the investment volume. Another characteristic feature of the development of venture investments in Russia is that the formation of venture funds is more on a regional basis, rather than sectoral. Knowledge of the peculiarities of venture in-vestment in Russian startups can solve the problem of lack of financial sources and significantly reduce or eliminate this risk.
In the work the author systematizes the main problems of disorganization of the interconnection between the real and financial sectors of the economy of Russia, which violate national security in the conditions of hypercompetition, including: structural disproportions of the national economy towards extractive industries; the absence of high-tech subsector industries that produce consumer goods; a small number of innovative small business entities and newcomers of a high-tech subsector; decrease in the share of investments in scientific and developmental design of Russia. Two main approaches to the study of the hypothesis of the advanced development of the national economy of Russia are singled out: the first is based on the justification by scientists of the chances for the formation of a new industry based on the convergence of technologies of the VI technological order; second – the impossibility of implementing an innovative breakthrough on the basis of the divergence of the real and financial sectors, scientific and high-tech subsectors. Based on the hypothesis of priority development through effective organization of the interrelation between the real and financial sectors of the national economy of Russia, the necessity of developing a concept, strategy and program for improving interaction between sectors with the purpose of innovative development, raising the level of innovative potential and ensuring national security is justified. To solve the problems of development of innovative interaction between the subjects of the sectors under consideration, it is necessary to create a unified information system at the federal, regional and local levels that allows information about the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors on the innovative development of various economic entities, as well as the monitoring body – the Fund for the Development of Innovative Interaction of the Real and Financial sectors at the level of the Government of the Russian Federation. To implement an innovative breakthrough and expand breakthrough technologies through the organization of convergence between the subjects of the sectors under consideration, the author proposes to implement measures aimed at increasing the financing of scientific and developmental development, including through private capital, at three stages of socioeconomic improvement of the national economy of Russia .
This work is devoted to solving economic and ecological problems of energy saving management at food industry enterprises, by maximizing the extraction of useful energy in material flows of low-potential energy resources. The subject of the study is the existing low-potential heat source, in the form of the volume of waste water discharged from a bakery enterprise. The object for the work was chosen JSC «Zarya», St. Petersburg. This enterprise belongs to medium-sized bakeries and specializes in the production of a wide range of bakery and confectionery products. By its production, economic and technical indicators is characteristic for this level of enterprises, which constitute the basis of the baking industry of the Russian Federation. The essence of the work is to conduct economic and environmental calculations, study the material balances and expenditures of various types of energy carriers used for the needs of heat supply, for the subsequent identification of possible ways to use the low-potential energy of sewage generated during the production of bakery products. It is supposed with the help of heat pump systems to convert the low potential of waste water into useful heat, which is possible for use in hot water supply systems of the enterprise. The result of this implementation is a further reduction in natural gas consumption, an increase in the level of energy and resource saving, and a reduction in the environmental impact on the environment. Based on the calculations performed, it was concluded that it is economically feasible to use heat pumps (HTs) in hot water systems, only when electric energy is used as a heat source. In comparison with gas boiler plants, the most widely used in the baking industry, the use of these devices, at existing energy prices, is not effective.
The deficit of long-term financial resources is a key factor restraining the formation of a circular economy in Russia, in which waste is regarded as valuable resources. In connection, the subject of the study was the peculiarities of the legislative framework (registration) and the problem of the application of public-private partnership (PPP) as an institution for attracting long-term investments in the resource recycling industry. The task of the study is to justify the need to intensify PPP in the field of resource recycling and to develop recommendations for improving state management in developing the relevant sectoral infrastructure and the mechanism for budget financing of PPP projects, and for creating profitable conditions for the participation of private investors in them. The general scientific methods of research, methods of economic analysis of the series of dynamics, a comparative legal method are used. Peculiarities of financing PPP projects in the sphere of waste management are revealed: decentralization of financial commitments to the regional and municipal level with the concentration of financial resources (utilization and environmental charges) at the federal level; asymmetry in forms (prevalence of concession) and in objects (the predominance of projects for creating an infrastructure for the elimination of accumulated damage and disposal of waste) PPP projects. It was proposed to create an environmental extra-budgetary fund to centralize the financing of PPP projects with the authority of the institute for development of the recycling industry of resources; to develop at the federal level an action plan and an investment program for creating the infrastructure of the recycling industry; distribute the utilization and environmental charges between the budgets according to the norms or limits; expand the practice of applying quasi PPP projects in the subjects of the Russian Federation; carry out the unification and typology of PPP projects; to include in the list of objects of concession agreements production waste; to improve the payment mechanisms of return on investment.
The article is devoted to the development of methodical approaches to investment monitoring using tools for assessing the debt security of companies. The purpose of the study was to develop an author's model of the forecasted debt security and justification of its analytical significance in investment monitoring of companies. The proposed model appeals to the principles of evaluation of corporate obligations, which are used in the theoretical models of financial insolvency of the firm. This approach to the building of the model has certain advantages, without conflict with the specifics of the company, industry and the market. At the same time, the model is oriented to Russian companies, which is reflected in the characteristics of the assessment of free cash flow. In particular, the indicator of adjusted free flow on invested capital is introduced, which takes into account a consistently high share of other revenues in the total amount of income of Russian companies. The author's model is tested on the example of a transport company operating in one of the major ports of the Baltic Sea. It is shown that the result of the forecasted debt security largely depends on the way of calculation of free cash flow. Approbation of the model allowed to reveal its features in more detail, revealing the advantages and limitations of the evaluation. The main recommendations for interpreting the possible values of the forecasted debt securitycoefficient are systematized and presented in tabular form. According to the authors, the model of predicted debt security will be usefulfor investors and managers in investment monitoring of companies, making a contribution to the development of such areas of financial science and practice as capital structure management, financial restructuring, financial risk assessment, corporate financial diagnostics and financial stability monitoring.
It's generally recognized, that the public welfare can reach its maximum under certain conditions provided that there is a social balance of the population’s income. The authors thoroughly analyze the process of income redistribution and claim that the classical approach should be complemented by transaction costs which wasn’t accounted for by the classical approach. The authors put forward a theory, which involves calculating the optimal values of the desired parameters. The article analyzes the correlation between GDP and Gini coefficient of different countries. This coefficient was proposed by the Italian statistician and demographer Corrado Gini and demonstrates how much income belongs to particular layers of society. In other words, this indicator shows the degree of social stratification of a particular country. The values range from 0 to 1. The closer the indicator is to 1, the higher the income disparities between the poorest and richest sectors of society. This index complements the indicators of GDP and per capita income, enables us to describe the economic situation of a particular country in a more detailed way. The study applies statistical methods of analysis, and a comparison of statistical indicators. On the basis of the analysis conducted, the authors prove how important to take into account the transaction costs in the tax system in order to reduce the income disparities between the poorest and richest sectors of society.
Management. Environmental management
Within the framework of the present work on the example of the metallurgical industry of Russia, the phenomenon of short-termism as a factor preventing the creation of a long-term strategy is studied. Disclosure of factors of distribution and strengthening of short-term policy development occurs in the theoretical part of this work through the prism of the theory of information asymmetry. In addition, the article presents the means by which it is possible to neutralize the consequences of the negative impact of short-termism in the light of the theory of risk management, the theory of agencies and their tools. The practical part of the study is reduced to the study of the degree of efficiency of corporate risk management on the example of a sample of companies, as well as econometric analysis of the company's tendency to short-termism. There is no significant model demonstrating the tendency of management to short-termism, but an indirect relationship between the effects of short-termism, expressed in such indicators as WACC and corporate risk management tools, based on the theory of risk management, is confirmed. Thus, considering the phenomenon of short-termism, in an attempt to get a reliable understanding of the processes that stimulate its appearance and the facts that reduce its presence in the company's management policy, we touched on the theory of information asymmetry, the theory of Agency relations, risk management, as theories closely intersecting and arising from one another in the study of the phenomenon of investment myopia.
Innovative and ecological activity (or ecologically directed innovation activity) in the modern economy plays an important role in the timeliness and professionalism of making economic and environmental decisions for the development of the enterprise, the region, the state. Lack of resources, highly qualified personnel, uncertainty in the economy, changing the market, all this has a big impact on innovative design, but if we consider the design problem from a methodical point of view, then one of the important and determining problems is the discrepancy of the basic design models to industry features. Therefore, in each specific case it is necessary to define the model and adapt it to the results of the analysis of the industry and the enterprise. In the article features of innovative designing of ecological projects are considered. The subject of research are the processes of management of environmental innovation projects, the object of eco-innovation, the purpose of the article is the formation of specific elements of the process of modeling environmental innovations that take into account the features of environmental innovation projects. For this purpose, the peculiarities of the management of environmental innovation projects, the problems arising at different stages of the life cycle of innovative projects in the field of ecology and the changes in the modeling of innovative design are proposed. The proposed block diagram of innovative design makes it possible to take into account the need for repeated examinations, studies and experiments in the course of implementing environmental projects, and also determines the main factors of the external and internal environment of the enterprise that affect the effectiveness of the implementation of the environmental innovation project.
The negative impact of anthropogenic factors on the ecosystem of our planet is currently the subject of heated cross-scientific disputes. At the same time, the alarmists have more and more arguments proving to their correctness: reduction of biological diversity, depletion of non-renewable natural resources, global warming, reduction of freshwater supplies. Despite international agreements aimed at realizing the triune formula for sustainable development, negative externalities continue to accumulate. Mankind as ever is acutely faced with the problem of limited resources and the search for ways of maximally responsible satisfaction of their needs. The purpose of this work is to study the contribution of recycling to the sustainable development of the territory. The subject of the study is the problem of measurability of the recycling efficiency in terms of achieving the Sustainable development goals. In the presented article such general scientific methods as analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, and system approach were used. The conducted studies showed that the institutional conditions necessary for the organization of effective recycling schemes in Russia are just beginning to be formed. The current system of indicators, which is fully capable of reflecting the state of the problem in the field of the reuse of benefits and the use of waste as secondary raw materials, is imperfect. Using the data available in the Russian official statistics, the author showed that the existing set of indicators is not enough to assess the nature of the relationship between waste processing and sustainable development, because it focuses on en-vironmental and economic processes, excluding from the analysis of the social component. The results of the study can become the basis for the development of an integral index linking the intensity of recycling processes and the degree of sustainability.
The concept of lean manufacturing (LM) is currently regarded as an effective method of managing business processes that contributes to improving the competitiveness of organizations through the production of goods or the provision of services that best meet the needs of consumers in the shortest possible time and with minimal costs. With the adoption of national standards of the Russian Federation in the field of tools for lean manufacturing (LM), certification and application in integrated management systems, the interest of Russian companies in this model of corporate governance continues to grow. Despite the fact that Russian standards presuppose a wide coverage of the value chain creation, in practice the use of LM methods and tools is focused mainly on the production areas of the organization, without extending to auxiliary and administrative processes and without considering the value stream. Analysis of foreign and Russian requirements in the field of lean manufacturing shows that the applied tools and management methods are universal and are based on the involvement of staff in active work on the implementation and adaptation of the principles of lean manufacturing. The authors studied the experience of implementing a lean manufacturing program in a company for the production of non-alcoholic beverages, and identified factors that hinder and stimulate the development of a lean management system. As methods of research, a cause-and-effect analysis, building a tree of problems and solutions, and a method of continuous observation, which was carried out using questionnaires of employees of the studied company, were used. In order to manage the development of lean manufacturing, the authors have formulated and proposed recommendations for improving the lean manufacturing program, covering four groups of factors: managerial, economic, socio-cultural, and technical-technological. The research results and conclusions can be used by business leaders to manage the development of a lean management system.