Методика оценки емкости рынка инноваций
Budrina E.V. , Lebedeva A.S., Rogavichene L.I. , Garmonnikov I.S. , Abdullah M.
The article explores methods for assessing market capacity in order to expand the tools for effective innovations commercialization aimed at improving the innovative activities effectiveness of economic entities of the Russian Federation. The specificity of the innovation market is identified, which necessitates an analysis of the applicability of existing marketing methods to determine the market capacity of innovative products. The studied methods are grouped depending on the assessment approach, the key features of each group and the possibility of applying the methods to assessing the market capacity of improving and radical innovations are considered. As a result of the study methods have been identified, that make it possible to evaluate the innovation market, including methods applicable to the innovation market only under certain conditions and adjustments. The need in development a tool for assessing the market capacity for radical innovations has been identified, taking into account its specifics, because of significant shortcomings of the selected methods, such as approximation and inaccuracy in assessment, ignoring the time factor influence on the speed of innovation distribution. In this regard, the methodology for calculating innovation market capacity has been developed, taking into account the change in time of consumer attitudes to innovation according to E. Rogers’ theory. The presented methodology allows to evaluate in quantitative, volume and cost terms the potential, actual and available market capacity of an innovative product based on available, quantitative data, which reflects its versatility, objectivity and fairly high accuracy. The absence of restrictions in its application and the need for software modeling use allows performing the task of assessing the innovation market capacity with minimal labor costs. The article provides a suppositive example of calculating the market capacity of specific innovative product (TF-X aeromobile) for each of innovation diffusion periods according to E. Rogers’ model for Moscow region and the Russian Federation. The prospects of improving the methodology in the direction of assessment accuracy are identified, taking into account identified recession in innovation consumption as a result of “gaps” appearance in transfer of information about innovation from one group of consumers to another, which identified in the works of J.A. Moore, J. Goldenberg, B. Libaya, I. Mueller.
The subject of this article is the study of the transformation of consumer values and consumer behavior that occurs under the influence of technological changes. The purpose of the work is to describe the characteristics of consumer behavior in the digital economy. This article used the theoretical and methodological principles of an interdisciplinary approach, which includes sociocultural, behavioral and institutional background in the analysis. In addition, in the process of work, such general scientific methods as scientific abstraction, analysis and synthesis, a combination of historical and logical were used. Based on the available data from Big Data aggregating companies, as well as consulting companies, consumer behavior in the digital economy is described. Shared consumption (sharing) is called as a determining trend in consumer behavior, reflecting the transformation of values. A necessary condition for the emergence and popularity of sharing is not only the development of a digital economy with a predominance of Internet access from mobile devices, but also the satisfaction of such important for a modern user needs as the speed of receiving goods, trust in this good, and the reduction in the cost of goods consumed. It is shown that the value of sharing is created as a result of the interaction of a large number of consumers generating reputation and trust. The article shows that modern society uses recommendation services that form a horizontal trust system as tools to reduce transaction costs. As a result of the study, factors contributing to the popularity of sharing were identified: technological (high penetration of the Internet, including from mobile devices) social (change of values, crisis of vertical confidence), economic (growth of inequality, reduction of middle class property), environmental (growth of popularity of recycling ).
Introduction: The need to develop a research methodology and systematization of methods for the formation of relationships between the real and financial sectors, scientific and high-tech subsectors is justified taking into account foreign and domestic experience based on the hypothesis of their separation in the Russian economy. The solution of the identified problems of separation of the studied sectors and subsectors of the Russian economy requires active government intervention at all levels in order to build innovative potential. The combined application and improvement by the state of traditional methods of direct, indirect and organizational and legal impact and the development of new methods of innovative and organizational action allows the formation of relationships between the sectors and subsectors of the economy under consideration. The problems of the effective application and development of the indicated methods are analyzed. For their effective use, it is necessary to take into account the action of the innovative mechanism. It includes mechanisms for financing and stimulating scientific research and development, search, development and implementation of innovations, commercialization of research results, etc. The insufficiency of attracting private capital to finance scientific research and development of scientific institutions, higher educational institutions, large, medium and small businesses requires not only growth in government investment, but also attracting various options for providing venture and bank capital. Measures have been proposed for adopting a bill to minimize the risk of creditors, the formation of a syndicated banking loan fund for innovative purposes, and the creation of a new banking product, “innovative credit. Alternative methods of creating interconnections of the studied sectors of the Russian economy in terms of informatization are ways of financing small businesses using financial technologies. The necessity of activating the mechanism of stimulating innovation and the use of traditional indirect methods of exposure, aimed at reducing tax payments associated with the amount of expenditure on research and technology. The results of copyright research on the basis of the St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics indicate problems with the commercialization of technologies. A model of effective technology transfer, ways of developing and reproducing human resources of scientific potential, and the need to create a single information space to stimulate demand for innovative products are proposed.
The goal of research is to prove necessity oflegal framework formation of elaborate governing the recycling process in Russia on the basis of identified gaps in the existing system of legal norms regulating the sphere of circulation of recycled resources. Such a regulatory framework should be a single consistent system of definition, regulation and control of the secondary resources using; the creation of a solid legal background is a vitally important condition for the inflow of investment in the recycling industry. The object is the current Russian laws regulating the sphere of circulation of secondary resources. The subject is the norms of Russian law that form the legal field of economic relations concerning the attraction of financial resources in the sphere of circulation of secondary resources. The research is based on a systematic approach; methods such as deduction and induction, analysis and synthesis, comparison and analogy, classification and systematization are used. In the research, the characteristic of the current norms of Russian law regulating the treatment of secondary resources; marked with a narrow and controversial provisions of separate legal acts that cause substitution of concepts or ambiguous; identifies the position taken from legal regulation; the necessity of development of normative-legal regulation of treatment of secondary resources to increase investment in the recycling industry. The result of the research is the development of certain provisions, which, according to the authors, need legislative consolidation for the formation, development and dissemination of traditions of the use of secondary raw materials in the Russian economy. These provisions are summarized by the authors in the enlarged directions of development of the regulatory framework governing recycling relations in order to attract investment in this area.
The digital transformation of the business implies a fundamental change in the economic structure due to the integration of modern digital technologies in all aspects of the enterprise. Such a transformation is not only technological in nature, but affects the entire established way of business: the nature of the interaction of entities within the business ecosystem, the business model of enterprises, the architecture of enterprise management systems, business process systems, and architecture of information systems. The main challenges that the digital transformation brings to the domestic economy are aimed at the ability to quickly adapt to changes and optimize work in the shortest possible time, dynamically changing in accordance with changing environmental conditions. Thus, the digital transformation of the business requires the development of concepts and approaches to the implementation of projects for the transition to a new way of doing business. The purpose of this work is to determine the place of digital transformation among the factors that determine the formation of the management system of modern enterprises. The object of this study is the architecture and IT architecture of a modern enterprise in a digital transformation. The subject of research is the place of digital transformation among the factors of the formation and development of the architecture of modern enterprises. The methodological basis of the study is a systematic approach to enterprise design, reflected in the discipline of business engineering and in the concept of enterprise architecture. In particular, the method of constructing a model of motivational expansion was used as a means of analyzing the main drivers that determine the development of socio-economic systems. The result of the work are models of motivational expansion of the formation and development of architecture and IT architecture of a modern enterprise, which determine the main external sources of requirements for the enterprise.
The article addresses the phenomenon of responsible investments. The research purpose was to identify key aspects of the scientific discussion on the content of the responsible investment concept and its implementation in practice. Thus, at the first stage, the methods of theoretical analysis of responsible investments as a scientific category were applied, which allowed to substantiate the main directions of empirical analysis of the international practice of responsible investment and the prospects of its implementation in the Russian Federation. Analysis of approaches to the definition of responsible investments showed that they are usually associated with responsible financial behavior of investors, which is interpreted from the perspective of environmental, social and management principles (ESG-principles). The most important factor of responsible investment decisions, in addition to profitability and risk, is sustainability, which gives reason to consider the responsible investment concept in the context of a broader sustainable finance concept. Despite the terminological eclecticism, responsible investment should not be equated with social investment, which is designed for below-market returns. The characteristics of the main elements of the responsible investment system is provided, including the main subjects, objects and financial instruments used. The content of the leading strategies of responsible investment is identified. It is revealed that the responsible investment system in international analytics, as a rule, is reduced to the market component. Thus, it is appropriate to talk about the responsible investments market, the main share of assets in which is accumulated by institutional investors from developed countries of Europe and the United States. The establishment of responsible investment in Russia, with obvious financial advantages, should contribute to the achievement of sustainable development goals. It should be recognized that the introduction of best international practices in the Russian environment will be associated with information, regulatory and structural constraints, which, however, does not exclude the benefits of catching-up development.
В современном мире судебная экспертиза представляет из себя не просто отдельную, самостоятельную экономико-юридическую науку, но и обширную сферу знаний, область применения которой сложно переоценить. Целью исследования являлся полный и достаточный анализ всех аспектов работы судебных экономических экспертов и экспертных учреждений, а также внесение научного вклада в реализацию улучшения данной деятельности. Объектом настоящего исследования выступает судебная экспертиза. Сквозь призму времени повышается эффективность законодательства и работа судебных экспертов. В статье раскрывается сущность судебной экспертизы и взаимодействие экспертов с различными отраслями науки. Методологическую основу статьи составили современные достижение судебной экспертизы. В процессе исследования применялись теоретические, статистические, традиционно-правовые методы. При написании статьи был выполнен анализ становления и развития судебной экономической экспертизы в России и за рубежом, проведена оценка ее современного состояния со стороны нормативно-правового обеспечения и факторов, влияющих на эффективность деятельности экспертов и экспертных учреждений, были разработаны и предложены методики повышения качества проведения экспертиз. Авторы затронули проблему широкого понимания, обусловленного значительным ростом экономических преступлений в современном мире. Значительный интерес представляют организационные вопросы назначения экспертизы, а так же при совершении экономических преступлений использование хозяйственных операций. Представлена классификация степени эффективности работы эксперта. Выявлены недостатки электронной базы деятельности эксперта. В исследовании приводятся рекомендации, направленные на создание возможностей для интенсивного обмена знаниями между всеми заинтересованными сторонами. Предложены рекомендации по совершенствованию некоторых аспектов работы системы судебной экономической экспертизы в России.
Actuality of research theme is conditioned by that, in spite of plenty enough of the researches sanctified to the study of problems of demographic safety, to present tense an effective mechanism able to create terms for providing of demographic safety is not worked out, to educe and in good time prevent her threats. In this connection an attempt to educe the sequence of problems and factors, influencing on a demographic situation in a country, is undertaken in the article, for providing of her national safety. In the article the analysis of demographic situation is presented in Russian Federation for 20 (from 1991 for 2019). At the study of quantitative and quality composition of population such negative moments were educed, as a decline of rural population (3,5 %), subzero closeness of population (8,57 persons/of км2), unevenness of distribution of population on territory of Russia, reduction of stake of title nationality in a population (the quantity of Russians diminished on 4,20 %), disproportionateness of sexual composition of habitants (women there are more men on 1,156 times), aging of population and decline of population, is in able to work age, increase of coefficient of the demographic loading. The analysis of natural motion of population educed a decline from 2016 of natural increase, reduction of total coefficient of birth-rate, reduction of amount of marriages, decline of number of families wishing to accept a child on adoption. Thus as positive moments it is possible to mark the height of the expected life-span. Consequently, the problems in a demographic sphere, formed in Russia, appear one of the most sharp and requiring preparation new methodologies of management by different demographic processes or their optimizations. Among the key measures sent to the decision of demographic problems, in the article distinguished: reduction of index of death rate, first of all people in able to work age; increase of index of birth-rate; strengthening of important institute of family; strengthening and maintenance of health of people; forming of vacant places and necessary social infrastructure is in the places of residence of citizens; providing of material help to childhood, family and maternity; change of migratory politics from the point of view of strategically important interests of native people of Russia.
The article analyzes the increase in overdue debts on Bank loans, which affects the quality of the loan port-folio of commercial banks. Throughout the history of banking, overdue and problem loans from banks have been a source of concern for both the banking community and society as a whole. In many cases, errors in the organization of the credit and investment process lead to a loss of financial stability, waste of equity and even the bankruptcy of credit institutions. Overdue loans displace new lending, reduce the profitability and solvency of banks. When a high level of problem loans affects a sufficiently large number of banks, the fi-nancial system ceases to function normally, and banks can no longer successfully perform the function of lending to the economy. Disruptions in the financial market and Bank failures make economic recovery dif-ficult. To improve the quality of the loan portfolio and the repayment of overdue debts in banking practice, there are quite a number of methods. In the process of dealing with bad loans, it is important to choose a me-thod that will ensure success in reducing arrears. The article concludes that modern realities require constant updating of methods of collection of overdue loans, as well as continuous monitoring and order of work with problem loans. Many Russian banks do not have a system of working with problem loans, especially banks that do not belong to the category of systemically significant. Optimization of these processes in the banking system is the key to profitability and financial stability of banks and the banking system as a whole.
Due to limited resources, small and medium-sized organizations are often forced to manually conduct strategic analysis and make management decisions based on the results. However, modern information technology allows us to solve the problem of automating the processes of making effective decisions in the field of strategic management, taking into account the limited resources of the organization. To solve this problem, there is a need to configure analytical tools taking into account the characteristics of a separate organization. The article discusses the problem of automating integrated business analysis for small and medium-sized enterprises using business intelligence information systems using the example of MS POWER BI. Data and Methods. The paper explores ways to increase efficiency in making operational management decisions by automating heterogeneous data sources that accumulate daily new information about the organization. A competitive analysis of existing tools and services in the field of business analytics is carried out according to key characteristics, such as the server’s ability to automatically update interactive reports (dashboards), the presence of an application that implements dashboards, connects data sources, the ability to visualize analysis results, the ability to use structured (SQL) and unstructured (NoSQL) queries for connecting to databases, tool cost and others. Based on requests from four organizations of small and medium-sized businesses in different fields, a problem analysis is carried out, problems, features and needs of companies are identified. The adaptation and testing of MS POWER BI tools to the needs of the analyzed organizations is carried out. Analys of Results.. The testing of MS POWER BI tools in the practice of organizations, taking into account their characteristics, allowed us to identify the advantages of the proposed method and to conclude that it is advisable to introduce automated analysis for representatives of small and medium-sized businesses due to limited resources. Using the BI-tools allowed firms to overcome several barriers of traditional analytics: unstructured data, a long period of preparation of analytical reports and, as a result, the irrelevance of indicators. In the course of the study, it was proved that the creation of a comprehensive solution for monitoring all the main strategic areas of the company on a single platform with clear analytics will increase the speed of making informed management decisions and will directly affect the company's profitability, becoming its serious competitive advantage.
Introduction: building a national innovation system using the full cycle method involves generating knowledge within the country through basic and applied research. In this regard, the goal of the work was to study the process of creating innovation in research institutes operating within the framework of the national innovation system.Data and Methods: the article consider the sequence of activities carried out by scientific institutions in the field of research and development, examination and protection of the results of intellectual activity, as well as their further commercialization. For the analysis of the innovation process, key stages (“research and development”, “examination”, “disclosure”, “commercialization”) are identified and their main characteristics are given, key participants and their functions in the process of developing innovative solutions are identified. The advantages and disadvantages arising at different stages of innovation are analyzed, measures are proposed to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the process under consideration.Analysis of the Results: at the stage of “Research and Development”, in order to reduce the negative consequences, it is necessary to increase the terms of approval of TOR and expand the number of participants involved at this stage. The effectiveness of the “Examination” phase can be improved by involving external experts in the internal examination, by introducing them into scientific and technical councils. At the “Disclosure” stage, in order to timely assess the commercial potential of development, the scientific staff should have elementary skills and / or simple and understandable recommendations for evaluating their work. It is not profitable for scientific personnel to bring the development to the stage of “Commercialization” through the organization of a business company or the transfer of rights to use in production activities. In this regard, it is necessary to develop appropriate measures to stimulate the innovative activity of this category of workers.
The rapid growth of cryptocurrency in the global market and national program of Russian Federation «Digital economy» drew attention to the environmental aspects of its production. This process is based on the use of significant computing power, which consumes a large amount of electricity. In most cases, traditional non-renewable energy sources are used, which leads to the depletion of natural resources. As methodology of environmental aspects analysis, the consequence/probability matrix was chosen. The following environmental aspects of cryptocurrency were identified and ranked: energy consumption for mining, computer using for mining, energy consumption for cooling of the computers, critical raw materials consumption for computer production, hazardous electronic waste generation from computer using in the end of life cycle. One of the most significant environmental aspects is energy consumption. As a result of the study, it was concluded that using of traditional energy sources for blockchain technology, the digital economy will be formed contrary to the interests of sustainable development and the principles of a low-carbon economy. In order to implement the national program “Digital Economy of the Russian Federation”, the transition to renewable energy will provide a breakthrough in the transformation of the existing economic model into digital without significant impact to the environment.
Management. Environmental management
The article deals with the problems of formation and management of enterprise information infrastructure. The tasks of organizing an information management system (IM) for managing the operation and develop-ment of an information infrastructure are also explored. It defines the goals of IM, its role and place in the enterprise management system, as well as its main tasks in the management of information infrastructure, including the Enterprise Architecture (EA). The main object of the study is the enterprise information infra-structure. Methods and tools of management of information infrastructure elements, features of its formation and adaptation to the current organizational, economic and information technology changes are analyzed. It is concluded that it is necessary to create a direction in the management system of the enterprise associated with the management of its information infrastructure, that is, the formation of an organized and regulated system of IM, to solve the problems of which an information service should be created in the organizational structure of the enterprise. The effective development of the organization through the regulation of its various types of information activities within the information service defined as a main objective of IM, that is, through the regulation of the organization's information activities. The tasks of IM focused not only on the information infrastructure, but also on the organizational, economic and production processes of the enterprise. All problems and tasks of IM are proposed to be considered in the context of a unified management sys-tem of an enterprise. The construction of this system ensures the achievement of the goals of the enterprise in its main activity through the effective and coordinated management of all the resources of the enterprise based on their informational reflection. It is noted that this becomes possible due to the coordination of the information needs of the enterprise management and the capabilities of its information infrastructure – the most complex problem solved in the information management system. We also consider the features of information management in the EA, the development of which puts before IM new, more complex tasks. The organization of all information processes in the EA, including its development projects, is considered as the Central task of the IM into EA. The basic rules, regulations and standards, which are based on the activities of modern information services in enterprises, providing the solution of the whole complex of tasks of the system IM also considered. The list of the most important tasks solved in the system by IM in the information infrastructure of EA is defined.
The article considers the issue of indirect state regulation of supply chains, through the use of concession agreements between participants in the supply chain and government agencies. Supply chain management in the global economy is becoming increasingly important, as it is a link that unites all participants in the economic process and allows them to take a certain place in various areas of economic life. In such a situation, the development of supply chains of the country's regions becomes the most important for the state. Sustainable supply chain development improves the economic process in various aspects, such as paying taxes to the budget, creating jobs and much more. To solve these problems, the state uses regulation levers aimed at helping to expand the supply chain logistics network. The greatest and quickest effect can be achieved from state regulation only by direct impact. The functioning and regulation of processes such as pricing, income and wage policies require government intervention. The use of indirect methods of regulating the economy is the most optimal, as they are an instrument of the monetary system. In this case, the state seeks to reduce the likelihood of bankruptcy of industrial enterprises, creates the basis for the issuance of subsidies and soft loans. In this regard, the study of indirect state regulation of supply chains in the Russian economy is of increasing interest on the basis that supply chain management is considered as a way to increase the financial stability of each individual enterprise participating in the chain. It was revealed that the companies involved in the supply chain need to build a new business philosophy. Particular attention is paid to strengthening ties in the supply chains with the use of indirect state regulation - a concession agreement, which is concluded with participants in a particular supply chain of a particular region. The definition and analysis of the financial stability of an organization participating in supply chains is an integral part of increasing the competitiveness of the entire logistics process. The influence of indirect state regulation in the form of a concession agreement allows to optimize supply chain management.
Building on existing findings in the field, this research seeks to develop and test a composite technique for modeling and projecting food consumer behavior in the context of rapidly changing ambiguous environment. At stage one, a model is developed within which the behavioral patterns along with environmental and psychological factors are functionally related qualitative variables attributed with “quantitative images” or metrics indexes. These indexes form a system of regression equations, instrumental for statistical forecasting, to enable the scenario analysis of patterns at stage two. That is, the model is applied in scenario development to predict changes in a set of patterns, which constitute the predominant deterministic component of the random process of consumer behavior at the food market. To provide testing for the technique, dynamics of the food “overconsumption” pattern are assessed.
Introduction: the article presents information about schemes, control systems for the process of processing sewage sludge formed from biological wastewater treatment. Data and Methods: The study presents the main methods used in the work with sewage sludge for the successful elimination of consequences for the environmental, economic and social aspects of urban life, various schemes of sludge processing used in domestic practice, as well as foreign experience of processing with a description of the characteristics of these methods and the definition of their positive and negative aspects. Technical solutions are presented as an innovative aspect of environmental management. Analys of Results: Process management is a key area in the implementation of environmental management. In the Russian Federation there are innovative developments in the field of sludge treatment, but they are at an early stage and there are few examples of implementation, while abroad this direction is quite developed.
For modern enterprises to automate business processes using computer technology and telecommunications are an integral part of their development. A key role in ensuring the efficiency of commercial and state enterprises play an information system. Late discovery of shortcomings of such systems affects the efficiency and reliability of information security systems. To ensure the successful functioning and development of information systems, information security audit is an indispensable tool of research and evaluation. This article considers the problem of selecting the optimal method of audit of information security of the enterprise. To solve the problem, we propose the analysis of methods of audit of information security. The principal methods of audit of information security and their features.Two types of analysis are taken as a tool for choosing the method of information security audit: SWOT-analysis and FMEA-analysis. Step-by-step algorithms for calculating quantitative indicators of these methods are described. The conclusion is made about the contribution of internal audit in ensuring the information security of the enterprise, its impact on managerial decision making and competitiveness.The results of the effectiveness of the chosen methods of information security audit both individually and in the aggregate are summarized.