The problem of integration of science, education and industry is relevant for the Russian economy. Currently, the development of Russian science has a number of issues, one of which is related to training. This situation is primarily associated with a decrease in the number of organizations engaged in research and development in the industry and University sectors of science, as well as the low number of highly qualified (doctors, candidates of Sciences) in them. The reason is the lack of a motivational component in research activities, as well as the fact that University-trained personnel do not meet the needs of the labor market, namely, do not have the necessary set of competencies to meet the requirements of the employer, represented to a greater extent by the real sector of the economy. Analysis of the financial support of the training process showed that unlike most developed countries in Russia there is no interest of the business sector to invest in science, as a result of which almost two-thirds of funding is provided by the budget. As an effective tool, it is proposed to create innovative forms on the basis of universities, which will solve two problems: first, the task of training highly qualified personnel in demand in the modern economy, and secondly, the inclusion of the business sector in the financing of research in order to obtain developments and technologies relevant to industrial enterprises. The universal structural-functional scheme of interaction of innovative integrated scientific-educational structures with scientific organizations and innovative enterprises, in which is embodied a multi-level system of continuous training «from student to scientist».
The article discusses issues regarding the economic rationale for the introduction of additive technology in the technological processes of production of the enterprise. Changes in material costs are considered for various options for the scale of application of additive technology in the manufacture of a product: only due to additive technology or partial application. The review of enterprises of the Russian Federation that successfully apply this technology is given. The factors restraining the development of the use of additive technologies in production are considered. The article also provides factors contributing to the spread of this technology, such as: material consumption, energy consumption, accuracy of manufactured parts, and manufacturing time. Through the indicators of energy efficiency, material consumption and time of manufacture of the product, criteria for the effectiveness of the introduction of additive technology are obtained. The factors affecting the payback period when introducing the technology are given. The article concludes that with the partial use of additive technology in the manufacture of products, first of all, additive technology should be used for the most labor-intensive operations for the manufacture of parts, or for parts whose accuracy will improve due to this technology. A condition has been obtained that determines the maximum number of parts, the production of which is justified to economically transfer to additive production with the partial introduction of additive technology in the general technological chain of product manufacturing. Moreover, the payback period also depends on factors: the cost of training personnel and new equipment, materials. Thus, the condition of expediency of transferring the nth number of operations to additive technology and the calculated payback period of investments, according to the relationships given in this paper, are the criteria for introducing additive technologies in the enterprise.
This article discusses the theoretical features of the introduction of e-government technologies in suburban areas in the context of Russian reality. The material continues the authors' research on the problems of suburbanization in Russia . The purpose of the work is to analyze the causes, factors, characteristics and conditions for the introduction of e-government technologies in the suburbanized territories of Russia. The study relates to knowledge in the field of modern urban studies and should contribute to a better solution to the problems of suburban areas as an integral part of the agglomeration. The work is based on the historical-logical method, methods of comparative and system analysis. Suburbanization is seen as an inevitable and positive consequence of the formation of urban agglomerations. The traditional city as a source of innovative development creates the conditions for its own transformation into a sub-urban type agglomeration. It is stated that the formation of a suburban zone should become the most important systemic element of the sustainable and stable socio-economic development of a large city. The competitiveness of suburbanized territories can be ensured only with a level of comfortable living comparable to urban. Achieving this state is impossible without equalizing the conditions for obtaining public services. In modern conditions, the only form of such alignment seems to be only e-government technologies. The socio-economic importance of suburbanization, its current trends and contradictions are considered. Features of the Russian suburbanization, its real and potential subjects (participants) are described. A hypothesis is formulated about the qualitative complication of city management with a suburbanized zone and the greater importance of public services for its residents. The reasons leading to a similar state are described. The solution or mitigation of most problems of the suburbanized zone is impossible without the use of e-government technologies. Attention is drawn to the tasks that need to be solved, as well as the characteristics and factors that should be taken into account to increase the efficiency of e-government.
The paper discusses the basic principles and approaches that ensure the synchronization of strategic and operational business tasks with the development and ongoing operation of the enterprise information infrastructure. The subject of the study is the architecture of information systems (IS) - a key element of the information infrastructure. The author analyzes the possibilities of organizational and economic changes in the enterprise management system related to the development of the enterprise, changing the landscape of business processes that form the business architecture of the enterprise and the impact of these changes on the architecture of information systems in Enterprise Architecture (EA). The object of study in the work is the information infrastructure of the enterprise, in particular, the architecture of information systems and business architecture in the EA. The relationship of the elements of the EA is analyzed, it is revealed that the EA is the most important tool for the accumulation and use of knowledge and a systematic description of the enterprise, which allows its development and achievement of goals. The most important role of business architecture in the formation of an effective organizational and economic mechanism for enterprise management, as well as in the creation and development of its information infrastructure, is noted. The role of the architectural model of enterprise management is emphasized, which allows the use of EA methods and tools to support strategic and operational management, synchronizing the management and development processes of IT and business. The role and purpose of various domains of enterprise architecture, as well as the role of information systems architecture as a basic element of the enterprise system architecture are considered. It was revealed that the formation of the business model requirements system for information infrastructure and the analysis of their changes allows us to develop the IS architecture, and it is noted that these requirements are formed by other components of the architecture (technical tools, network protocols, related application solutions, etc.). The main methodologies for the formation of IS architecture are considered, the use of which allows not only to provide data on the organization of IS, its structural elements and interfaces, but also pay attention to ease of use, flexibility, limitations, risks during creation and operation, as well as organization interaction with other elements of system architecture. It is concluded that the architectural management model, based on the business model, allows you to create an IS architecture that is resistant to infrastructure changes and provides the required purpose and functionality in managing the organizational and economic development of the enterprise.
Ferrous metallurgy has always been and remains an important part of the industry of developed industrial countries, since it is not only the basis of all metallurgy, but also the foundation for the development of other industries. The production of ferrous metals is associated with a large number of complex technological processes, accompanied by various types of hazards both for the life and health of metallurgical workers, and for industrial safety in general. The study is aimed at solving problems in the field of labor protection and industrial safety, the object of the study is large Russian metallurgical holdings. The article analyzes such factors as accident rate, injuries, mortality and staff turnover, considers the main causes of accidents. By a comparative analysis of measures to ensure the principles of occupational health and safety implemented at metallurgical enterprises, shortcomings in ensuring the safety of personnel were identified. To reduce risks in this area, it is proposed to focus not only on creating a safe environment, but also on enhancing the personal responsibility and consciousness of each employee. As measures aimed at solving the problem, it was proposed: to increase the motivation of the personnel of industrial enterprises to comply with the principles of health and safety; introduce a personnel positioning system in a production facility; increase the innovative activity of iron and steel enterprises
Starting in mid-2014, the economy of the Russian Federation found itself in a tight grip: on the one hand, the imposition of economic sanctions by Western countries, and on the other, a decrease in world energy prices. The article discusses the stages of the implementation of tax policy in the Russian Federation in the period from 2016 to 2022. The aim of the work is to study retrospective and promising trends in the development of the tax policy of the state. The object of the study is the state-management decisions of the relevant state authorities of an anti-crisis and stabilization nature in the field of tax policy. The following methods were used as research methods: systematic, considering the adopted state-administrative decisions and the results obtained in aggregate; statistical, aimed at studying the time series of specialized financial data; historical, allowing to evaluate retrospective decisions and events; interdisciplinary, confirming the close connection between tax, budget and general economic issues; epistemological, associated with the generalization of existing and increment of new scientific knowledge. The analysis of the time series of statistical and financial data of Rosstat, the Federal Tax Service of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, as well as the basic regulatory documents - “The main directions of the tax policy”, “The main directions of the budget policy”, “The main directions of the monetary policy” of the state for a specific financial year ( later these documents were combined into one). The results of the study indicate that the task of stabilizing the macroeconomic equilibrium and the economic system of Russia as a whole was achieved by the end of 2016, and already next year a consistent solution of the current accumulated tasks was carried out. Some of the problematic issues were solved in stages (optimization of the system of tax benefits and preferences), but a significant part is still in the process of development (systematization and legislative consolidation of common rules for establishing non-tax payments). The results of this study can be used in studying the tax policy of the Russian Federation in retrospect, as well as in conducting specialized research.
Nowadays, thanks to the emergence and development of modern information technologies such as blockchain, digital twins, virtual assistants, the Internet of Things, Big Data and many others, digitalization affects more and more areas of Russian business. These changes are reflected both in the public sector and banking, as well as in the healthcare and oil refining sectors. Such transformations are inevitably displayed not only on the main business processes, but also on the enterprise architecture as a whole. This research discusses the need to adapt the standard framework for the design, planning and implementation of corporate enterprise architecture - TOGAF for the subsequent presentation of the latest technologies in it. The purpose of this study is to compile a list of requirements of the digital space architecture of Russian business for technologies that ensure its implementation. These include, first of all, functional and non-functional requirements that describe functional and graphical implementation, documentation of implementation and operation, distribution of access levels and much more. Moreover, for a complex digital transformation of a business, it is necessary to take into account organizational requirements that describe the approach to the implementation of information technologies, for example, standardization of the main business processes of a particular industry, analysis of the demand for technologies and the correct justification for their choice, as well as the formation of criteria for analyzing the maturity level of enterprises. The formation of this list of requirements is the first step for creating a digital space for Russian business for subsequent business IT alignment, creating abstract models and models for assessing the maturity level of organizations regarding their digitalization.
The trend in the modern development of the economy of Russian regions experiencing the impact of the economic systemic crisis and the current foreign policy and external economic situation is the change in structural proportions, manifested in the narrowing of domestic demand for manufactured products. This leads to underconsumption of goods and services, and, consequently, to reduced incentives for enterprises to increase their output. The problem of structural transformation of the economy is especially acute in relation to the resource regions. These include the European North of Russia (ESR), whose economy is characterized by low growth rates of production, a low degree of modernization of industry, a strong dependence on export of resources, and insufficient level of innovative activity of enterprises. The result of this state of affairs is structural imbalances, expressed in the dominance of the components of extractive industries in the gross regional product to the detriment of other types of economic activity that generate higher added value. Meanwhile, a focus on the development of such sectors with a simultaneous increase in the manufacturability of products in traditional industries due to the lengthening of value chains can be considered as areas that can ensure economic growth. In this regard, there is a need to study the structural changes in the economies of the Russian regions for the scientific justification of measures that, in the current economic conditions, are able to change structural ties and thereby ensure economic growth. The study analyzes the use by subjects of the European North of Russia of competitiveness factors and the income generated by them. In the course of the analysis of structural changes in the gross regional product of the territories of the ECP, it was determined that over the past ten years, trends towards increasing the efficiency of the economy were noted only in the Vologda Oblast. In conclusion, the article proposes the direction of regional economic policy to eliminate structural imbalances. As the methodological basis of the study, general scientific methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization were used.
The relevance of the research topic is due to the fact that, despite a fairly large number of studies devoted to studying the problems of rural areas, there is still a tendency to decrease the number of rural population and the number of rural settlements, the destruction of social and transport infrastructure, although the countryside continues to fulfill a number of strategic economic functions . At the same time, in the basic agricultural production for these territories, under the influence of market reforms, problems have intensified, overcoming of which is currently an important task for the country's economic complexes. The author suggests that it was the destruction of the agricultural production structure in rural areas and its low competitiveness during the perestroika period that were both the cause and effect of the degradation of settlements, which was especially pronounced in non-chernozem regions of Russia. The article attempts to identify new trends in the distribution of productive forces in order to develop recommendations for reducing territorial imbalances in the industry. The aim of the study was to identify the trends in the post-Soviet period of the socio-economic development of rural areas and the rationale for new directions in placing their basic industry - agriculture - as significant aspects of the modern organization of the economic space. The object of study is the economy of rural territories of the Vologda Oblast, including agriculture, as the basic industry, the subject is the conditions of socio-economic development and the characteristics of agricultural distribution in the rural territories of the Vologda Oblast. The study revealed that for the period 1990-2018 municipal districts of the Vologda Oblast, located near the Vologda and Cherepovets agglomerations, were able to increase the share of agricultural production in the total. Agriculture in remote municipal areas, as a result of external and internal factors, was in a difficult situation, their share in the total agricultural production of the region in the post-Soviet period mainly decreased. The result of the transformation of the location of agricultural production in difficult socio-economic conditions was the concentration of industry enterprises mainly near large cities with scientific and technological potential and ensuring the marketing of products to large markets. Based on the provision on the need to disperse this type of activity in the region, which has historically been the basis for the development of rural territories, the author proposes the use of cooperative forms of communication of farmers within local territories, which make it possible to simplify the business of small and medium-sized enterprises, by analogy with the cooperation models established in Norway and Finland. At the same time, it is important not to thoughtlessly and completely copy institutions, mechanisms, forms of integration and cooperation, but to adapt the best world practices and achievements with relatively small investments to Russian reality, as if it were invented and implemented for the first time. The work used general scientific research methods (abstract logical and system approaches, generalization method, monographic, etc.), economic and statistical method, as well as graphical and tabular data visualization techniques. The results obtained during the study are of significance for regional authorities in the framework of adjusting policies and strategies for the development of rural areas and agriculture, for the scientific community, since they represent a certain reserve for continuing research, and society as a whole.
Environmental sustainability is becoming one of the most important factors determining the development of agri-food systems at the global, national and local levels. The article concludes that Russia, which has solved the task of ensuring food independence as a result of the agrarian policy since 2014, has faced the need to modernize the national model of food security. In this regard, it seems relevant to justify the most important directions for modifying the new model, which include reducing food losses and waste, increasing the quality of food products, creating a state food safety control system, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this study is to find out what the modern model of food security is, its features in developed and developing countries, to determine what new risks a society faces, striving to satisfy the need for high-quality and wholesome food. To solve this problem, we used systemic and indicative approaches, as well as general scientific research methods. The study allowed us to conclude that new risks and threats in the field of food security arise, including due to a change in the environmental situation. It is especially noted that in the context of the creation of global food supply chains, not only “environmental stresses” in a given country, but also a number of other resource-supplying countries can pose a threat. As a result, it was concluded that taking environmental criteria into account will allow a more complete assessment of food security at global and national levels.
The relevance of the research topic is due to the fact that unregulated migration processes threaten the demographic security of the state. The article presents the analysis of migration processes in Russia from 1991 to 2018 in order to identify problems and factors affecting the demographic situation in the country. The study showed that migration growth is decreasing. For the period from 2011 to 2018, it decreased by 62.8 %. In 2018, in the exchange of population with the CIS countries, there is an increase in migration growth-by 122,984 people, a decrease in growth is observed with the countries of the far abroad-by 3,916 people. In addition, during the period from 1995 to 2018, we can observe a decrease in the number of internally displaced persons and refugees. The number of persons granted temporary asylum is increasing. In Russia in 2018, internal migration amounted to 4,184,467 people, an increase of 53,214 people compared to 2017. The main areas of domestic migration are the Central Federal district, Privolzhsky FD, Siberian FD and North West FD. The article assesses the current demographic threats related to migration processes in Russia: reduction of the share of the titular nationality in the population; increasing the number of non-indigenous people; high (low) intensity of the arrival of migrants; high (low) intensity of departure of migrants; high (low) migration gain citizens; a high degree of illegal migration; the increase of illegal migration; lack of quality outbound and inbound migration flows; the discrepancy between the real and necessary for the country directions of migration flows. Among the main measures aimed at solving problems related to migration processes, the article highlights: changing migration policy from the point of view of strategically important interests of the indigenous peoples of Russia and improving migration legislation in this regard; development of socio-economic measures to increase the migration attractiveness of the territories from which there is an outflow of population; development and implementation of Federal and regional programs aimed at creating favorable conditions for the adaptation and integration of immigrants into Russian society, etc.
The purpose of this study is the problems of the Russian economy associated with the export of capital outside Russia. The main problem is the reduction of the tax base, and as a consequence, the state budget does not receive enough money that could be used to solve social problems in the first place. When withdrawing capital through offshore schemes, including through the so-called "gray" schemes, the Federal budget of Russia does not receive a significant amount of tax deductions, and Russian enterprises receive money to invest in their own capital. It is impossible to fight against Offshores because they operate within the legal framework and their activities are recognized by almost all countries of the world. It is impossible to prohibit offshore companies from attracting foreign capital and changing their tax policy of a sovereign state. However, to ensure the security of the national economies of the world, it is necessary to strengthen the transparency of offshore countries, which will make it possible to reduce at least if not net investment, then capital withdrawn from other countries illegally. To this end, international cooperation and financial oversight by international and state organizations should be established. Determining the reason for the departure of business offshore, can help to establish the tax and legal system and stimulate the return of business to the national economy, thereby increasing its security. The authors propose a priority for customs authorities in implementing currency control to make a pre-emptive counter-schemes, illegal withdrawal of capital abroad based on the development of mechanisms of risk management in the performance of control and Supervisory functions of the FCS.
Management. Environmental management
The purpose of the work is to assess the competitive position of the manufacturing company operating in the construction market of the Moscow region, to determine the prospects and opportunities for effective management of competitiveness and innovative development. The article assesses the competitive environment of the research object, identifies the goals and advantages of the company in the construction market, as well as the maturity of the market. in the regional market. The basis for determining the competitive position of the target company was the comparative assessment of competitors in the market, which was carried out by the Agency for marketing research "Consulting" on a five-point scale, based on the analysis of three indicators: the price level, the level of production of enterprises of the construction market in Mytischi, a wide range of construction services of enterprises-analogues. The conclusion is made that the investigated enterprise among the main and largest enterprises of the Moscow region is in the last place. This is due to the fact that the production capacity of the company is used to the full and the increase in volumes is impractical due to the lack of reserve resources. For the purpose of increasing the competitiveness of the company in the regional market, the article proposes and discusses the introduction of new production in its activities. The organization of new production at the enterprise will entail a change in the organizational structure: instead of linear, it will be necessary to introduce a matrix structure. Certain types of production will be represented by business units. This is due to the fact that all production is technologically and organizationally independent of each other. This approach will provide the company with a better organization and the ability to control the formation of profits. The structure of business units will correspond to the organization by responsibility centers. In General, the introduction of a new business unit will allow the company to strengthen its competitive position in the regional market.
The development of environmental management should take into account global climate goals. Experience of international cooperation in climate policy (framework UN Convention on climate change adopted in 1992, the Russian Federation ratified in 1994) nassive more than a quarter century, but during this time period and has not produced an effective regulatory instruments climate security. The aim of the article is to develop effective proposals to improve the national, regional and corporate climate security management mechanisms of the Russian economy. The recommendations developed by the authors to solve this problem can be used in applied research and practice of state, municipal and corporate management of natural and climatic risks in order to ensure climate stability of socio-economic development of territories and economic entities. The following facts can be noted as having novelty of the research results. First, it is proposed to include the functions of climate threat management in the list of powers of public authorities engaged in public administration in the field of environmental protection and nature management. Secondly, a list of instruments of the national mechanism for regulating climate security is proposed, including the creation of an extra-budgetary climate insurance Fund to increase the level of financial support for adaptation to climate change. Thirdly, it is recommended to use a risk-oriented approach to regional management of climate threats, for this purpose, the criteria for assigning surveillance subjects to a certain class (category) of danger are developed and the frequency of implementation of climate surveillance is recommended. Fourth, the expediency of the project method application for corporate management of natural and climatic risks is substantiated.
Tourism is a major industry that can lead to economic benefits, as well as environmental degradation and social infrastructure. Tourism can destroy existing environmental resources through overuse and poor management practices, as limited disclosure and poor monitoring of activities contribute to perpetuating and spreading environmental issues. The article discusses methods and approaches that help solve fundamental problems associated with the development of a set of monitoring models and proactive management of tourist and recreational resources. These methods and approaches include: the development of a scientific and methodological apparatus, which includes methodological foundations, a set of statistical and economic-mathematical models and the corresponding socio-ecological and economic indicators, as well as combined methods and techniques of multi-criteria assessment, analysis and forecasting of the state of resources; development of an econometric model of the dynamics of the characteristics of recreational resources as environmental assets; logistic model of tourist flows, which is based on the use of a flow analysis apparatus in networks; modeling the load on ecological systems using system dynamics methods; models for the formation of environmental awareness of the population and consumers of tourist and recreational services and assessment of needs for tourist and recreational services. These methods and approaches of proactive monitoring suggest the prevention of incidents by creating fundamentally new predictive and anticipatory capabilities in the appropriate monitoring and control system. As an example, the environmental problems of the development of agritourism on the territory of the Kurgalsky reserve of the Leningrad region are analyzed. simplified scheme for calculating the costs of maintaining the ecological potential of the territory.
The article deals with modern CRM-systems (application software, customer relationship management system) as an innovative tool to improve the competitiveness of the organization. The main goal of business organizations in today's complex and dynamic socio-economic system: keep the desired market level competitiveness on the basis of understanding its own competitive advantages and competent work with existing and potential customers primarily on the basis of a systematic and comprehensive database of clients. At the forefront today should be put customer-oriented approach. To work with clients and directly with databases, the most relevant tool, fully corresponding to the modern need for innovation, is the CRM-system as a type of software. The article gives the concept of CRM-system, describes its functions, classification of existing CRM-systems. The paper presents an analysis of the use of CRM-systems by Russian organizations, based on a survey of entrepreneurs conducted by Habr. The most popular CRM-systems in Russia are listed. Describes the implementation and use of CRM-system "Bitrix24" by the commercial organization working in the field of educational services: English language school SkillSet. Revealed inconsistencies CRM-system "Bitrix24" tasks of the school SkillSet and justified the need to develop for this organization improved CRM-system based on the platform "Bitrix24". The problems that have already been eliminated due to the gradual introduction of an innovative CRM-system into the activities of the English language school SkillSet are considered. The need to adapt existing CRM-systems to the nature and specifics of the company's activities, its strategic goals and objectives becomes obvious. The article provides practical recommendations on the choice of CRM-system by the organization and its improvement based on the needs of the company.
The issues of increasing the energy efficiency of thermal distillation technologies for the disposal of industrial liquid waste in the places of their formation when using heat pumps are considered. Technological schemes of thermal distillation using built-in heat pumps with open loop, working on water vapor, and with a closed loop working on refrigerant R407c are analyzed. A calculation method is given for determining the energy efficiency indicators of thermal distillation technologies using built-in heat pumps: heat transformation coefficient, specific consumption of electric energy, saving equivalent fuel in a replaced boiler house and power plant. The results of the analysis of the energy efficiency of thermal distillation of low-capacity plants for neutralized liquid waste show that they are not inferior to the known foreign counterparts in terms of energy efficiency. The calculated indicators can be used to identify the best available techniques for liquid industrial waste utilization using heat pumps.