Introduction: the oil and gas sector for Russia has long been the basis for the economy. The article analyzes the current state of this area to determine potential paths of development. Data and Metods: the article deals with the current state of the oil and gas sector, its main trends and development prospects, examines the current state of the largest oil and gas companies in Russia, their income, profitability and capitalization in the stock market, analyzes the dynamics of government revenues from taxation in the oil and gas sector over the previous 10 years The reasons for the change in the amount of income are indicated, conclusions are drawn on the current state of the economy of the oil and gas sector in the Russian Federation. Special attention was paid to the connection of the amount of the Reserve Fund and the National Wealth Fund from the revenues of the oil and gas sector and the impact of the capitalization of the oil and gas sector on the Russian stock market. Analys of Results: the article examines the relationship of prices for Russian oil products with prices for global brands, considers the volumes of production and export, as well as the depth of oil refining, reflects the influence of these factors on the revenues of the oil and gas sector. Reflected the results of the analysis of these factors. The author’s opinion on possible further ways and directions of development of oil and gas enterprises is presented.
Klochkova A.V., Shpakovich D.K., Aleksashkina E.I., Manovich E.A.
Introduction: The development of science and business in recent years has significantly helped not only to increase interest in the field of logistics, but also to increase its importance, both for the efficiency of the enterprise and for the country's economy. Currently, new directions and approaches to this area are being developed for the development of logistics. Data and methods: The development of one of the logistics divisions or the logistics enterprise as a whole is aimed at making profit, the increase of which is carried out by reducing the overall level of costs, and the importance of such a concept as logistical costs increases. The relevance of logistics costs management is in their dependence on the efficiency of resource use in the process of logistics activities and in their impact on the total costs of the enterprise, and, consequently, on its profits. One of the main problems, both in Russia and abroad, is that enterprises do not use the methods of optimization of logistics costs. Analysis of the results: The article reflects the problems of optimizing logistics costs, among which the lack of approved terminology and methodology in this field, the low awareness of enterprises both about the composition and the management of logistics costs. The specific specifics of logistic costs and their unique structure at each enterprise does not allow to simplify the optimization process, therefore, the authors proposed such a method as logistic budgeting, which is a multifunctional tool of the system of planning indicators, analysis, coordination and control of logistics costs at the enterprise.
Introduction: The article considers the connection of the wave-like process of reducing graduates of higher education and adequate actions of the Russian government to reduce the number of faculty members and the number of universities after 2012. The new economic policy was large enough not to cause qualitative changes in the higher education system. Data and Metods: As a research method, an economic analysis of statistical data of quantitative changes in the main indicators of higher school activity is used to identify the transition to a new quality. The new economic policy was large enough and it caused qualitative changes in the higher education system. From 2012 to 2018 the number of university teachers decreased by one third, the universities themselves were reduced from 818 to 500, the number of students was reduced from 7050 to 4245 thousand people. The main task of the government was to reduce the state budget funding of higher education. The article critically analyzes the selected methods of reduction: "Effective contract" and the reduction of control numbers of admission. Analys of Results: The transition to the annual competitive selection increased the intensity of scientific work in the short term, but there was a targeted shift towards the fulfillment of formal indicators on which employment began to depend on after 2012.The study found the disease of short-termness as a result of the introduction of annual contracts instead of perpetual hiring. The disease manifested itself in the violation of the process of reproduction of human capital in the industry and the destruction of small cooperatives of scientific labor that forming scientific schools, in the increasing emigration of scientists, in the perception of work in universities as unpromising and reducing the number of post graduate students. The staff was not only reduced, but its reproduction was destroyed. The article provides an assessment of the consequences of the transition to funding from the state budget per student instead of the former funding of the organization. It is concluded that it is necessary to introduce the institute of retraining in exchange for the elimination of lagging students, which reduces funding. In conclusion, new long-term threats to the reduction of universities and their professors from the steady growth of individual distance learning are shown.
The circular economy is not only a developing theoretical concept that meets the ideas of sustainable development, but also a dynamic applied sphere. It covers economical industrial approaches and a wide range of regenerative systems in which losses, emissions, waste and energy leakage, as well as the use of primary resources are minimized by slowing down, looping and narrowing material and energy flows. This is achieved through innovative industrial and product design, focused on durability and long-term use; maintenance and service support; repair; reuse and sharing; recovery, processing, etc. In the domestic and foreign scientific literature there are many approaches and interpretations of this concept that meet different tasks, while the lack of consistency in the views of researchers and practitioners hampers the global development of the circular economy. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the consistency and transparency of understanding the concept of a circular economy in domestic research. This meta-research was carried out on the basis of data from the RSCI and Web of Science scientometric databases using bibliometric and content analysis methods. As a result, a high homogeneity of the conceptual apparatus in domestic studies was discovered, but at the same time, its substantial incompleteness as compared with foreign research. At this stage of development of the global circular economy, it is advisable to use more flexible and differentiated approaches to describe the concept of circular economy, including the development of sectoral strategies and national industrial standards.
Introduction. In the context of globalization, qualitative economic growthand competitiveness are impossible without the innovative development of the country.The People’s Republic of China has a successful experience in building an innovative economy, which was originally based on the creation of special economic zones, therefore, the study of innovative profiles of China and Russia will help to identify the prerequisites for the creation of innovative economies of both countries, as well as ways of their development. Data and Methods. The study is based on the use of statistical data of OECD, WIPO, etc., as well as the use such scientific research methods as analysis and synthesis, comparison and generalization. Analysis of Results. The article examines the innovative development of the country as a condition of economic growth, the theoretical aspects of the formation of innovative economy and key indicators for assessing the innovative potential in the framework of resource and result approaches.The factors that ensured the country's position as a world leader in R&D were highlighted. There are such factors as gaining access to Western markets; human capital; financing system with participation of both government and business; stimulation of high-class specialists by salaries of world-class scientists; effective system of knowledge transfer to final technologies and products. Most of the mechanisms used in China to support high-tech companies have been actively used in Russia for a long time, but the speed of Russia's economy transformation to an innovative development path is significantly different from the Chinese one, therefore, the directions in the model of innovative development that require changes were identified, as well as the path of innovative development of Russia, based on the use of its own scientific and technical potential for the creation of high-tech goods and services. The innovation potential of both countries was also evaluated using the Global Innovation Index (GII).Further development of Russia's innovative infrastructure can solve the problem of commercialization of innovation projects, and investment of "long" money in the real sector of the economy combined with lower interest rates can stimulate technological renovation.
Introduction: At the present stage, the separation of the real and financial sectors is confirmed as in the world economy, which can cause the crisis development of the Russian economy. Thus, the removal of barriers between sub-sectors of the financial sector, the creation of a single speculative and financial space contributed to the smooth spread of the us mortgage crisis in 2007 throughout the global financial system and affected the economies of different countries, including Russia. The hypothesis of unjustified separation between the real and financial sectors of the Russian economy indicates the threat of destruction of the real sector. In order to create linkages between sectors, it is necessary to identify the reasons for their gap in order to develop a set of measures for their formation. Data and Metods: To identify the causes of the gap between the sectors under study, the author used General scientific research methods, as well as methods of comparative and systemic analysis, the theory of innovative development and management. The complex methodological framework allows to justify practical solutions for their elimination. The objective and endogenous reasons for the separation of the studied sectors of Russia should include the features of the domestic economy; the refusal of the real sector from the loan on the basis of the policy of self-financing, as well as banks to lend to small businesses. The subjective-objective and subjective-subjective nature of the subjective cause of the sector gap is manifested in the political will embodied as an American-centric model of globalism and the political style of domestic actors aimed at the destruction of the real sector. The article presents the key exogenous reasons for the gap in the sectors of the economy under the sanctions: the fall in energy prices, the ban on access to external sources of financing and technology for enterprises. Analys of Results: The significant consequences of the separation of the real and financial sectors of the economy on the basis of the designated reasons for their separation is the destruction of the real sector and the transformation of Russia into a digital colony with the consolidation of the rent-raw economic model. The system methodological approach makes it possible to study the real and financial sectors on the basis of the law of controllability and the principle of hierarchy. The law of necessary diversity acts with the active role of the state in the application of fiscal and monetary policy measures for the expanded reproduction of the real sector and the formation of relationships between the sectors in question, long-term financing mechanisms based on the new technological structure.
Introduction: The closed-cycle economy is the basis for natural resources conservation, environmental protection and environmental safety. Meanwhile, it is important to use the best available technologies for neutralization and processing of production and consumption waste in addition to observance of the legal and environmental rules. Waste management of production and consumption is one of the main directions of the transition to a circular economy and the use of low-waste and non-waste production, which has recently been actively demonstrated by developed countries. Subject, tasks and methods of a research: The main aim of extrusive processing of meat waste is considered. Extrusive processing of waste – an effective solution of problems of rational environmental management as allows to make in addition secondary resources products, thereby realizing the principles of economy of the closed cycle; and considerably to reduce environmental pollution due to refusal of burning and waste disposal of livestock production and the meat-processing enterprises. One of perspective technologies of high-quality processing of waste is extrusive processing. Research results: confirm that in Russia outdated neutralization and recycling of agro-industrial waste technologies lead to the loss of resources. Moreover they have a significant negative impact on the environment. This article deals with the method of extrusion recycling of meat waste. Extrusion recycling of waste is an effective solution to the environmental management problems, as additionally it allows to produce products from secondary resources, thereby the principles of closed-cycle economy are implemented, and significantly reduce environmental pollution by eliminating the burning and disposal of animal waste and meat processing plants. Thus, use of extrusive technologies will allow not only to make waste products, to get additional profit, but also to prevent pollution of air, water and land resources harmful substances, providing thereby rational environmental management, and will form a basis of transition to circular economy which formation is impossible without environmental safety.
Introduction: The article is devoted to the problems and evaluation of the prospects for domestic passenger air transport in conditions of low market dynamics, price volatility for aviation fuel, and good competitive positions of other types of transport. Data and Metods: The research methods used are systematization of requirements of regulatory and program industry documents, analysis of official statistical information and expert information on air transport activities, abstract review of research results on the development of passenger air transport in Russia, the current state and factors in the development of the aviation industry. Characteristic features of the development of the domestic market of passenger air traffic in modern conditions are presented by estimating the number of passengers transported, the percentage of passenger seat occupancy, flight intensity, aviation mobility of the population in comparison with indicators of the global market for passenger air transport. As factors for the development of civil aviation, the state, age structure and use of civil aircraft fleet and infrastructure, the structure and dynamics of operating costs are considered. Analys of Results: The author’s position on the driver development of regional aviation, the conditions for the successful implementation of the business model of low-cost airlines, the creation of business aviation centers, and the strategic interaction of airport enterprises and airlines is presented. Among them: the formation of a national reference three-level network of aerodromes, mitigation of requirements for obtaining an operator certificate and airport infrastructure designed to serve business aviation, attraction of international (foreign) investors in the creation of new airlines, search for non-aviation revenue sources. It was concluded that the passenger transport market by air transport is actively seeking a sustainable mechanism for development and operation, which requires improvement of regulatory, technical and legal regulation, and must also be accompanied by cardinal changes in the markets there, education, aircraft technology.
The issue of innovative modernization of the regions of the Russian Federation is becoming increasingly relevant every year. The country's leadership is taking concrete steps to implement major national and regional projects and introduce modern management technologies into the domestic practice. In this regard, since 2015, territories of advanced socio-economic development (TOSED) are being created in Russia. At the time of writing, there are 99 such economic entities. The purpose of the work is to determine the place and prospects of TASED in the system of special economic zones - the fundamental direction of innovation policy in the Russian Federation. In turn, the relevance lies in assessing and analyzing the existing experience of the functioning of free economic zones, identifying existing shortcomings, determining the development potential of this mechanism and TESED as its integral element. The subject of this work is the territory of advanced socio-economic development. Research methods. In the course of the study, such general scientific methods as synthesis, analysis, comparison, analogy, scientific abstraction, classification were used. The article explores the prospect of applying the territories of advanced socio-economic development in domestic practice. Comparison with other forms of free economic zones is carried out by analyzing the legislation in this area and the practice of TOSED work by application. The study yielded the following results: to follow the evolution of the development of free economic zones: from the free economic zones that appeared in the 90s to modern innovative mechanisms - the SEZ, ZTR, and TESED; conduct a comparative analysis of the types of free economic zones (SEZ, ZTR, TASED) among themselves; to identify the advantages, promising directions of development, as well as the disadvantages (risks) of TASED as an integral part of the functioning of free economic zones.
Introduction: This article examines the process of evaluating the effectiveness of the strategy of innovative development of organizations. Organizations are increasingly resorting to developing an innovative development strategy to improve the efficiency of business processes and improve their competitive position in the market. The purpose of this research is to study methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the strategy of innovative development of the enterprise. Data and Methods: The usage of the balanced scorecard is chosen as the main evaluation method. The scope and possibilities of applying the ranking method and the method of expert estimates in the distribution of indicators to determine the class of innovation, as well as the statistical method are analyzed. Based on the results obtained, the formula for evaluating the effectiveness of the strategy has been modernized, taking into account the innovation component. The qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the risks of the strategy of innovative development of the organization, such as the method of analyzing the acceptability of costs, methods of analogies, expert assessment, have been analyzed. Analysis of Results: In the course of the study, an algorithm was developed for evaluating the effectiveness of an innovation development strategy, which takes into account all the main aspects of the organization’s activities (financial aspect, customer satisfaction, internal business processes, human resource level), which allows to obtain more accurate information about the possibilities and effectiveness of the strategy. The results of the study are recommended for usage in enterprises that are actively engaged in innovative activities.
Introduction: The article reflects the features of the application of environmental innovations, their development and recent development in the Russian Federation, the importance and relevance of the direction to date. The main tendencies of development of ecological innovations are defined, for what enterprises their introduction will be the most favorable and perspective, and also experience of the national project "Ecology" and prospects of its full implementation in the country is considered. Dataand Metods: The study used methods of analysis and synthesis, considered relevant examples for this area and conducted their situational analysis, factor analysis of the innovation process, as well as the induction and deduction of data and situations. Analysof Results: The study considers current examples of the implementation of eco-innovations in the practice of modern enterprises and companies: on the example of the Baltika brewery, as well as the resource supply enterprise of sue Vodokanal of St. Petersburg. The environmental innovations considered in the work are promising for further implementation in other companies and structures of the city. The key projects and indicators, such as "the southern area of water supply," the assessment of risk to public health if contaminated water body, characteristics and relationship of the concepts of production capacity and innovative activities and their effectiveness and the strategic importance for the city.
Introduction: The program “digital economy” performs the function of a modern mechanism, which develops the structure of economy on the whole. New interests emerge, which are heretofore unknown as well as large amounts of opportunities to realize them, first of all, by young specialists, who tend to apply the obtained knowledge for satisfying their ambitions thereby creating a favorable environment for modern society and for the future. The analyzed process of digitalization is accompanied by a great number of menaces, the most important of which is the probability of development of large scale unemployment, which affects the middle and junior categories of specialists. No doubt, the process will start with the middle class, since the workplaces of this class will be substituted by automation and robotics. Large number of able, highly qualified persons, who are accustomed to live at a high level of life standards, will find themselves “at a roadside of Western way of life”. However, the digital world will be composed at such a rate that a lack of specialists of other specialties will be obvious. Due to this reason absolutely every person, who is ready for changes, will have time resources for preparation. Data and methods: The object of research is the digital economy of the Russian Federation. The aim of this work is to define the level of digitalization of the Russian Federation and preparation of recommendations on the development of digital economy. Aims of research: study the main reasons for digital economy development; study weak and strong sides of economy of the Russian Federation, which influence the development of digital economy; offer recommendations for elimination of barriers. Analysis of results: Based on obtained results, comparative analysis and recommendations were prepared for development of digital economy in Russia and providing for favorable conditions for Russia’s entrance to the world economy. Target-oriented and reasonable development in the analyzed direction will provide for potential for regularizing of ties of operational and technological activities of national economy with foreign digital platforms, technologies and standards as well as with the intensive introduction of virtual currencies (crypto-currencies), which is currently uncontrollable). The article offers recommendations, which will enable to more clearly understand the problems, to develop a succession of actions in politics, to provide for coordination of the actions, in order to timely apply the emerging potentialities, thereby preserving its digital autonomy (which means real autonomy as well). In the nearest future digital economy will enable to discover new potentialities in different spheres of life. In other words, the importance of digital economy is obvious, since this trend is modern and, looking at the world experience, the country has a good perspective of growth, using its strong points.
Management. Environmental management
Recently, the scope of application of technology of additive production is expanding, creating new opportunities for various types of production. Additive manufacturing (sometimes called rapid prototyping or 3D printing) is a manufacturing method in which layers of material are created to create a solid object. Although there are many different technologies for 3D printing, this article will focus on the overall process. The core of additive manufacturing technologies is the use of computer, 3D modeling software (computer aided design or CAD), machinery, and multilayer material. In these conditions, the task appears to spread these technologies to new industries. This requires determining the advantages of the technology in relation to this area and evaluating the effectiveness of its application. Choosing the most suitable manufacturing process for a particular application can be difficult. The very large range of 3D printing technologies and materials available often means that some of them may be viable, but each suggests changes in dimensional accuracy, surface finish and post-processing requirements. The object of research is the technology of 3D models. The subject of the research is the analysis of the main methods and tools for applying the technology of 3D models. The purpose of this study is to analyze the existing technologies of 3D-models and the formation of recommendations for their improvement. The article considers the factors of efficiency of the introduction of technologies of additive production and possible methods for assessing the quality and effectiveness of decisions made. Unusual and new applications are also discussed, such as micro-scale manufacturing, medical applications, aerospace and fast production.
Introduction: Interest in project management is growing every year in all areas of activity around the world. The Russian Federation also noted an increase in the number of specialists in the field of project management based on the analysis of statistics of obtaining PMI certificates in Russia for 2000–2019. And this is fully justified, because project management has proved its effectiveness to the world and was recognized as a high-class organizational and intellectual culture of the implementation of projects of various kinds. The development of project management methodologies in the XXI century depends on the development of the world economic system, the development of science and technology, the emergence of new fields of knowledge. Today, one of the most significant trends in the development of society as a whole is the digitalization of the economy. It leads to the formation of a new view of project management in General. The purpose of this article is to determine how the digitalization of the economy affects the methodology of project management. Data and Metods: For this purpose, some of the most common project management methodologies to date have been considered, namely Waterfall, Scrum and PRINCE2. Analys of Results: As a result of the data analysis approaches were the main advantages and disadvantages. Further, having studied the concepts of «digitalization» proposed by various authors, the key criteria characterizing the digital economy were identified, on the basis of which its author's definition was formulated. As a result of this work, it was concluded that effective project management in the digital economy requires seamless integration of agile methodologies, such as Scrum, and tightly regulated provisions in the initial implementation, such as PRINCE2 and the classic waterfall (cascade) methodology.
Introduction: In modern conditions of dynamic and continuous development, when customers' needs and desires change rapidly, only companies that are able to create, implement and use innovations and are able to adapt to the conditions, adjusting their business processes, can still remain competitive, keeping productivity on the required level. Развитие цифровой экономики способствует активному внедрению информационных технологий на предприятиях Российской Федерации. The development of the digital economy leads to the active implementation of the Information Technology in Russian Federation enterprises. The degree of usage of information technology in the country's economy is constantly increasing, as well as the volume of investments in this area. Thus, from 2014, Russian expenses on communications and information technologies increased 1,12 times and amounted to 4,8 billion US dollars . Data and Methods: The article examines the process of implementing information technology in the investment activities of enterprises. The purpose of the research is to analyze domestic and foreign software products and its ability to be effectively used in the investment activities of innovative enterprises in Russia. The statistical base for the analysis of the implementation of information technologies in the Russian Federation was the data of the “Federal State Statistics Service”. Using the method of individual expert assessments, information technologies used in the investment activities of enterprises were analyzed. These enterprises are the objects of research, in particular, COMFAR and PROPSPIN from UNIDO, PROJECT EXPERT and Invest Center, created by the domestic company, Pro-Invest-IT ,TEO-Invest – development product of the team of authors of the Institute of Control Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Alt-Invest company (St. Petersburg), and identified the advantages and significant disadvantages of the described software. Analysis of Results: The investigation revealed that one of the most important tools of increasing the competitiveness of enterprises in investment activities and overcoming the problems associated with a dynamically changing external environment is the usage and creation of new information technologies that will eliminate the disadvantages of modern software products. The demand for sustainable growth in production in conditions of growing competition, the instability of the external environment in which Russian enterprises operate as a result of the integration of the country's economy into the world economy, determines the need for the wide use of new high technologies during the digitization of the economy.
The article is devoted to the problem of management of innovative activity of enterprises. The relevance of the topic is justified by the fact that for a long time only large companies were engaged in innovation, but with the accelerated development of the economy and technology, even small businesses are forced to innovate to maintain their competitiveness. In order to conduct and manage innovation, companies should initially assess their innovation potential. To what extent the company is ready to update or improve certain processes. Is it able to ensure these changes, that is, all responsible persons of the company should evaluate the maximum amount of innovative products that will be implemented with the full use of all available innovative resources. Depending on the activities of the enterprise will depend on the innovation itself. Of course, depending on this, the company will choose the most appropriate approach to management. However, the first step is to evaluate the ID, which will give a clear idea of its type and determine the innovative potential of the company, which will tell you in which direction to move. The example was improved innovation system of the company. Indeed, today, a systematic approach to innovation management should be considered the best, as it includes everything, process, project approaches, as well as strategic innovation management. It is more effective than other approaches individually.
Объектом исследования стали сельские жители, проживающие в 5 муниципальных районах (Мценском, Сосковском, Шаблыкинском, Глазуновском, Болховском) Орловской области, представляющие все природно-экономические зоны (Западную, Центральную и Юго-Восточную). Предметом исследования явились экологические проблемы жителей сельских территорий, оказывающих непосредственное влияние на развитие сельской территории в конкретно взятом регионе. Целью исследования ставилось проведение анкетирования сельских жителей для определения влияния хозяйственной деятельности человека на экологию, а так же влияния экологической ситуации на устойчивое развитие сельских территорий, качество жизни селян. Определить экологические проблемы и пути их решения, а так же их значимости для сельских жителей, относительно проблем социального и экономического характера. Для изучения мнения сельских жителей об экологическом состоянии сельской территории и направлениях дальнейшего развития была разработана анкета. Анкетирование сельских жителей проводились в два этапа, в 2013 и 2018 годах, для получения данных в динамике. В опросе приняло участие 636 человек (2013 г. – 336, 2018 г. – 300 человек). После обработки субъективных мнений респондентов, полученные эмпирические результаты соотнесли и сравнили со средними показателями по региону и в целом по стране, для чего были использованы материалы федеральной службы государственной статистики. В ходе исследования было выявлено, что подавляющее большинство сельского населения считаю место своего проживания экологически проблемным, отмечают негативное влияние на свое здоровье, как основную проблему указывают вывоз и утилизацию бытовых отходов, а так же ликвидацию несанкционированные свалки. Однако, сельские жители не готовы активно участвовать в экологических мероприятия и задействовать государственные ресурсы для этих целей. Значимость социально-экономических проблем, для них, преобладает над экологическими.
The object of study of rural population in 5 municipalities (Mtsenskiy, Soskovskiy, Shablykinskiy, Glazunovskiy, Bolkhovskiy) Orel region, representing all natural and economic zones (Western, Central and Southeast). The Subject of the Study. Environmental problems of rural residents who have a direct impact on the development of rural areas in a particular region. Purpose of research. To conduct a survey of rural residents to determine the impact of human economic activity on the environment, as well as the impact of the environmental situation on the sustainable development of rural areas, the quality of life of the villagers. Identify environmental problems and ways to solve them, as well as their importance for rural residents, with respect to social and economic problems. A questionnaire was developed to study the opinion of rural residents about the ecological state of the rural area and the directions of further development. Surveys of rural residents were conducted in two stages, in 2013 and 2018, to obtain data in dynamics. The survey was attended by 636 people (2013 – 336, 2018 – 300 people). After processing the subjective opinions of respondents, the empirical results were correlated and compared with the average for the region and the whole country, for which the materials of the Federal state statistics service were used. The study revealed that the vast majority of the rural population consider their place of residence environmentally problematic, note the negative impact on their health, as the main problem indicate the removal and disposal of household waste, as well as the elimination of unauthorized landfills. However, rural residents are not ready to actively participate in environmental activities and use public resources for these purposes. The importance of socio-economic problems, for them, prevails over environmental ones.
Introduction: This article discusses a comparative analysis of the application of advanced methods to improve productivity in our country and in Japan, due to the fact that Japan is an exemplary country in terms of the role of man in the life of the organization. The main innovative tools to increase labor productivity indicators from the moment of training of future specialists until they reach retirement age are considered. Data and metods: Today, our country is actively developing in many respects and even has advantages in some aspects of this issue, however, in General, Russian personnel management, unfortunately, is significantly inferior to the Japanese for a number of reasons. The main drawback is the system of education and training. If in Japan educational programs are made together with the advanced companies, the modern equipment is attracted, during training modern technologies are studied, real production problems are solved, in our country educational programs in most cases are seriously outdated and do not help to solve real today's problems of production. When applying for a job in Japanese organizations, the probation period is of serious importance and allows the specialist to thoroughly study all aspects of production. In Russian organizations, probation is often a way for employers to pay lower wages during the probation period, and from a production point of view is formal. In addition, in Japan, specialists who have reached retirement age are used much more productively. They work as consultants and pass on the accumulated experience to young professionals who come to their places in the structure of the company, while in our country, specialists of retirement age to the last hold their positions in the company because of small pensions, taking jobs of young professionals. Analys of results: In our country, there are indicators in which Russia has a serious superiority over the Japanese, for example, in the development of effective training programs for specialists. In addition, in our country today, promotion often does not depend on age, leaders are young and effective managers, while in Japan the position depends on age, which is an outdated approach. In General, the innovative personnel management of our country is inferior to the Japanese, which indicates the need for reforms in many systems related to the personnel potential of our country.
Introduction: The hospitality industry is a growing segment of Russian business. Hotel business is its most dynamic component in comparison with the sectors of catering and tourism. The article focuses on the factors that can affect the success of the hotel business in terms of corporate sales. Data and methods:The study of corporate sales management is based on two concepts: the marketing concept of customer orientation and the institutional concept of services as experimental benefits. The integration of the two concepts in the study of the corporate sales process allows, in the author's opinion, in methodological terms to remove a certain aspect or fragmentation inherent in the theoretical approaches designed to solve one specific problem. In theoretical terms, the integration approach made it possible to fix different niches of risks or factors, opening up alternatives that can lead to both gains and losses. The data of Rosstat and practical experience of Domina hotel (St. Petersburg) were used. Analysis of results: An important component has been added to the traditional concept of customer orientation – the study of the state of competitors and the preliminary wishes of the client – the assessment of the quality of the service already received. The concept of good experimental targets for careful examination of the opinions of the client after receiving services because only then you can get the most relevant evaluation of services and to transform customer requirements into technical requirements for the operation of the hotel. Corporate sales management, presented on the basis of the integration of the concept of customer orientation and the concept of experimental benefits of the institutional economy, allowed to analytically identify risk factors in the segment of corporate sales of the hotel business, both during the pre-sale preparation of the service and upon completion of its provision. For hotels choosing a corporate segment for their business, the latter circumstance is especially important, because it allows to establish stable regular communication with corporate clients.
The development of production technologies is one of the strategic objectives of the enterprise in a competitive market. Such projects can significantly optimize the main processes of the enterprise, create individual products, and also quickly respond to changes in the industry. Recently, the introduction of additive manufacturing technologies has become a strategically important task for enterprises of various industries. The technology demonstrates a number of significant advantages over traditional production, providing advanced manufacturing companies with such competitive advantages as flexible configuration of the production line and the ability to quickly prototype new products. However, approaches to the introduction of additive technologies in the processes of industrial enterprises still have a number of issues that require additional analysis. First of all, such issues include aspects of the integration of additive technologies in the business architecture and architecture of enterprise information systems. For the introduction of additive manufacturing requires an integrated approach, affecting various aspects of enterprise management. The factor of complexity of the impact of additive production technology on enterprises as a whole necessitates the development of a project approach to their implementation. The purpose of the work is to propose a methodological basis for the implementation of additive technologies in the enterprise architecture. On this basis, a technology implementation plan is drawn up. The methodological basis of the research is the analysis of the literature on the research problem, the generalization and systematization of data. The result of the work is the proposed integrated approach to the implementation of additive manufacturing technologies based on ADM TOGAF. An integrated design approach allows you to maximize the benefits of technology.