Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media

March 2021 (published: 02.03.2021)

Number 1(44)

Home > Issue > The essence and structure of the national economy of Russia, the real and financial sectors in the context of structural transformation

UDC 330.101.541

The essence and structure of the national economy of Russia, the real and financial sectors in the context of structural transformation

Zueva O.A.

At the present stage, there is no single approach to the study of the phenomenon of the economy and its elements. Domestic scientists are exploring the versatility and integrity of the economy (I.D. Afanasenko, D.Yu. Miropolsky). Foreign scientists represent the sectoral characteristics of the economy: the real and financial sectors act either as a single whole in the economic system (J.M. Keynes, H.F. Minsky, J. Tobin), or as independent systems (Pally). The author's positions are based on a scientific systemic representation of the economy as a whole and divided into parts - the real and financial sectors. The urgency of this problem requires a detailed consideration of the phenomenon and structure of the Russian economy and its elements. The essence of the Russian economy is presented through the laws of functioning and qualitative properties on the basis of systemic, historical and logical approaches, the theory of reproduction, capital and innovation. The opposite properties of the economy are revealed: "additivity" (independence of elements) and "entropy" (decay). The real and financial sectors as subsystems of the economy take into account all types of activities in the creation and redistribution of GDP, NR, the formation of innovative potential and its elements in the movement of different types of capital. Key subsystems in the structure of the real sector (traditional and innovative subsectors) and the financial sector (budget, currency, credit and exchange subsectors) characterize the role of actors in creating the results of the functioning and innovativeness of the economy, the nature of the formation of relationships between the real and financial sectors. On the basis of a systematic approach, the content of the scientific categories "national economy of Russia", "real sector" and "financial sector" are disclosed. Comprehending the essence of the world - economy means access to the laws and patterns of its creation and functioning and the subsequent understanding of the essence of the real and financial sectors. In the two-sector model of the Russian economy, opposite properties (additivity and entropy) are increasing, indicating the separation of sectors. Significant criteria for revealing the essence of the studied sectors are indicated: the share of activities in ensuring the rates of economic growth, the leading participation of agents in the reproduction and growth of the level of innovative potential. The developed structure of the real sector reflects structural shifts with a predominance of raw materials industries and the presence of sub-sector separation. The structure of the financial sector makes it possible to justify its separation from the real sector and the loss of national security. It is noted that with the digital transformation of the economy, organizational innovations can become the basic components of the relationships of the studied sectors. The financial mechanism needs to be activated.
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Keywords: systems approach, national economy, real sector, financial sector, separation hypothesis, organizational innovations.

DOI 10.17586/2310-1172-2021-14-1-12-21

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