Economics and ecological management
Opportunities to take the necessary effective economic and financial decisions for the country, because of uneven welfare distribution between different countries and regions of the world with only one in the world, the world's reserve currency (the dollar), which, as a result of the imposition of other countries as a common international payment system leading to default; consideration of factors need to develop and strengthen Russia's economic system and ensure its sustainable economic growth, protect its financial system from the global destruction of the dollar, and before or after the default; the need for record-keeping of money in a single national currency (rubles) to verify the source of its origin and the closure of the country's external financial boundaries; improvement of fiscal policy to ensure sustainable economic growth of Russia; strengthening the role of the Russian tax system and its impact on the efficiency of the national economy; accounting risks, ensuring economic freedom of economic entities are not offset by the state; permit workers employment problems in the innovative development of the country's economy; accounting objective and subjective measures for the development and prosperity of Russia.
Due to objective causes, Housing and utility services are all-encompassing and provide services for every person within the country/ Given services are extremely important for both population of all level, and strategic position of the country overall. Nevertheless, present industry is characterized with huge number of problems need to be solved. Still the solution for the given industry is not obvious and requires both huge financial resources and coherent efforts from all housing and utility services market agents, including governmental structures, entrepreneurs and even consumers. It is worth noting, the reformatting process in given industry covers entire modern history of Russian Federation. In order to improve present situation in given sphere, it is worth creating competitive environment for entrepreneurship. By virtue of key characteristics of services in question, such as catholicity, high level of planning for service providers and regularity for consumers, the significant potential for growth and development exists in given industry. Nevertheless, numerous features of doing business in Housing and utility services sphere are capable to hinder the process of industry modernization.
The article reflects the economic development of Vietnam, which is one of the most actively developing countries in South East Asia, has the market with attractive opportunities and potential for growth. As of 2014 the country's GDP amounted to about 173 billion US dollars with a population of about 90 million people. The country has created favorable conditions for attracting foreign investment. The right and proper their investments contribute to a high rate of economic development in such industries as oil and gas, chemical, and light and pharmaceutical.
Article purpose − assessment of influence of inflow of direct foreign investments on economic growth, identifi-cation of factors of his stimulation in the course of attraction of the foreign capital by transfer of new technologies, placement of branches of foreign firms, development of the competition, use of new forms of the organization of management in the companies. In article outer and internal effects of transfer and import of technologies in a manufacturing sector from direct foreign investments are disclosed, the directions of investment activity of global multinational corporations, including contract operations are investigated; the general and special principles, country distinctions of factors and conditions of stimulation of economic growth are revealed; it is reasonable a role of research and developmental developments as major factor of development of the innovations which are the cornerstone of success the Top of 50 innovative companies of the world; the directions of development of the international business allowing the companies to enter the international market are defined, using innovative advantages of global production systems.
The creation, dissemination and use of innovations, increasing the role and scope of the development of intellectual property are the main factors in the formation of an innovative economy. Intellectual property is affected, as in the formation of the cultural level of society, and on the formation of the country's competitiveness. In modern society, the results of human intellectual activity is a direct productive force, along with the traditional factors of production - land, labor and capital. Intellectual property may be included in intangible assets of organizations. Received under the contract or license intellectual property and rights to it as intangible assets should carry its own value (through depreciation) to the cost of goods (works, services) in accordance with the norms of depreciation and useful lives. Results of intellectual activity, as personified in the form of intellectual property, have specific properties to ensure the economy of any level of the organization are clear competitive advantages. Intellectual property affects the competitiveness of sectors of activity, region, country, and also determines the rate of appearance of new products and technologies.
Currently, the ability to build and practical use of innovations is becoming a prerequisite for high-quality economic growth. Achievements such conditions requires fundamental changes in the innovation environment on the basis of regularly conducted innovative technological forecasts, the use of new governance arrangements. In this respect, the special role played by the development of the national innovation system, and the interaction of its core elements – the state, science and business is becoming increasingly important. As world practice shows, despite the different importance of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in innovation policy in different countries, manifested a clear trend towards the growth of its influence on the development of innovative activity. The exceptional importance of the PPP as an effective tool for implementing innovation policy is determined, firstly, the development of innovation infrastructure in the interests and with the active participation of business, and secondly, more efficient use of state property and budget expenses, including allocated to support innovation; thirdly, promotion of the private sector to the development of entrepreneurial activity in the areas with the greatest potential for high-quality economic growth. In recent years, Kazakhstan has taken a series of measures undertaken measures aimed at stimulating the development of PPP forms. In particular, it established the National Agency for Technological Development, experimental design bureau, special economic zones, technology parks, technology transfer centers, etc. However, the country still lags far behind in the development of legislative, organizational, economic and financial mechanisms for the implementation of PPP in the innovation sphere. The need to use advanced foreign experience, theoretical and practical mechanisms for PPP development in the innovation sphere, providing for various forms of participation of business, government, and science, as well as the account of features of formation and development of Kazakhstan's NIS cause the relevance and timeliness of the study of the problem.
Due to the pervasive nature of the information and communication technologies and their implementation in all the pores of economic life, are undergoing radical change as a form of existence, of the economy and its being. All this takes place with unprecedented in previous historical epochs speed. That is what caused the simultaneous holding of three generations, the most important criterion is that the differences in the degree of involvement of the digital life: Speed generation, Aborigines of the previous pre-digital era, Generation of euphoria. These three generations – in this case, the conditional characteristic that depends on the perception and reality do not always coincide with the age division. For economic development understanding of the specifics of the actual three generations it was always, but today this understanding to make a significant emphasis associated with the perception of these generations and socio-cultural reality of their involvement in the digital being, and the ability to adapt and adopt the digital economic infrastructure. It is important to note that this division is unique and is temporary. It is characteristic only for our time, where the fact of the simultaneous existence of these three groups is unique. For the first time in history we are at a historical gap, where three generations staying at the same time, characterized not only by age but also by the degree of involvement in the digital being, consequently, the economy should turn to their "digital" specificity.
In article the provision on expediency of use of loan financial resources at all stages of development of small business is proved, problems of bank financing of small business are analysed and the directions of his expansion and improvement are offered. The main advantages of business are considered. Subjects which can acquire the status of small business entity are analyzed: on share of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation in them; foreign citizens and various organizations which don't treat subjects of small and average business; on the average number of workers; on proceeds from sales of goods and services. Sources of financial resources both own, and loan are disclosed. The ratio of loan and own capital, use of these sources and conditions of their restriction belongs to the key moments in management of the capital. Here features of financing of small business which influence efficiency of his work are revealed, measures of a gain of the bank credits are listed to small business.
The present article considers the challenges of attraction of investments into one of the components of the tourism, which is hotel business. The issues of description of the structure and content of the sections of documentation on the characteristics of investment projects are analyzed. One of the most important criteria for competitive selection of projects is the evaluation of the economic efficiency of projects. This includes the financial indicators of the project, such as the discount rate, the payback period of the project, net present value, internal rate of return and profitability index. Social tasks are revealed as well and their analysis is given. Further the analysis algorithm of the stages of selection of investment projects is disclosed. The main stage is considered, which are areas of investment development in view of the study of the territory parameters. By analyzing the components of investment projects the basic financial and economic indicators and indicators for assessing the economic efficiency of investment projects are revealed. A special role is given to the examination of the projects presented as well as the analysis algorithm for selection of investment projects and its stages. Much attention is paid to the selection of the areas of investment development of the main factors and to the parameters of the development of each selected zone.
Management. Environmental management
Financial strategy is one of the most important tools for competitiveness management of the enterprise. On the one hand, the importance of the financial strategy is that it reflects the financial performance of the main activities of the enterprise. On the other hand, other business strategy is developed on the basis of financial strategies, as financial resources limit the scope and activities of the company.Therefore, it is necessary to define the basic theoretical fundamentals of formation of financial strategies for enterprise competitiveness The authors explore the mechanisms of its implementation under the influence of factors internal and external business environment, taking into account the features of the modern development of the economic space. The authors discuss the basic principles of a portfolio of financial strategies for enterprise competitiveness through multimodularity method and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of financing activities of the enterprise at the expense of own and borrowed funds. The aim of the article is to provide the best proposals for the formation of a portfolio of financial strategies for the competitiveness of enterprises that improve the efficiency of operation of the business and ensure its competitive position in the market.
Scientific and technological progress and production in the mid 70-ies of the last century, the first personal computer, greatly intensified research in the field of data transmission, and to the 90-th years of the World Wide Web became available to the public: Commerce firmly on the "electronic tracks", and the term "electronic commerce" has become firmly established in our lives. This article describes the current state of e-commerce in the Russian Federation. Considered criteria of typology of e-commerce in general, and e-commerce in particular. Presented legal assessment of commercial transactions carried out via the Internet. It describes the problems in transactions through conclusive action. The key role in the formation of this kind of problem playing for the courts, because many lawyers confirmed the difficulty of use of electronic documents in the publicly-legal relations at the present stage. It automatically determines the failure of reality to the civil point of view. Shown are typical legal problems in distance selling software, such as the absence of actual delivery and payment of electronic means of payment. The cases in which the need to use of cash registers and provides recommendations of executive authorities of the Russian Federation. In the final part conclusions about the need for changes to certain legal acts of the Russian Federation, and specific examples of such changes.
In article describes the characteristic of creation of corporate forming of the higher school (HS) – the lateral clusters uniting educational institutions, the entities and the organizations of various profile, performing a single common goal – release, in crisis conditions of the country, taking into account the information and communication technologies (ICT), the corresponding high-quality specialists, according to requirements of their consumers in the country is described. Planning and organization of interaction between subjects of an entrepreneurship by the universities, the organizations, the entities united in HS corporations – (lateral clusters), is connected with integration behavior of these subjects. These processes are created, on essence of business activity in environmental conditions. The public higher educational institution is non-profit organization, and its main goal is achievement of a certain social effect – increase in educational level of the population. For financing of activities for achievement of this purpose the organization can realize commercial projects. In modern conditions the higher education institutions and the organizations which were earlier relying generally on the existing traditions and public financing are forced to consider the changes happening in the environment. Therefore prerequisites of forming of HS corporations (lateral clusters) are: effective establishing the cooperative communications entering into corporations, carrying out single production and technological, technical and sales policy for implementation of innovative projects and increasein scientific and technical capacity of the country and economy in general.
The growth of the company's products for a certain period of time there are: growth of production resources and improve the efficient use of these resources, due to the optimal ratio of extensive and intensive factors of production. In this case, the growth of the social product can be achieved, both through sustained growth and through the development of production. In this context, economic growth can be achieved both by quantitative and qualitative factors. The article provides a description of methodological issues of determining extensive (development of the enterprise involved in the production of more resources) and intensive (enterprise development through the improvement of existing production, involving relatively smaller amount of resources) of financial resources and analysis of managerial decisions on intensification of production; an example of development of innovative activity of the enterprise, given its intensive-extensive factors influencing the implementation of the plan of work, calculated the economic effect from innovation activity. The dependence on the basis of correlation analysis between intensive and extensive factors of sustainable innovative growth and development of the enterprise taking into account the rules of «Golden section».