The existence of contradictions between environmental and economic interests that increase both environmental and economic risks is a significant threat to the national security of territories. The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of conflicts of environmental and economic interests and to consider methods of their resolution on the example of conflicts over polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET was chosen as the main object due to the prevalence and lack of regulation of environmental and economic interests related to it in the Russian Federation. The theoretical basis of the research is the works of domestic and foreign specialists. We used the analysis of the legal framework, methods of comparative analysis of legislation, applied statistics, and case studies. The study also relies on data obtained using footprint and life cycle assessment methods. The article deals with the theoretical foundations of the emergence and features of conflicts of environmental and economic interests of economic entities, the citizens and the state. The main methods of their modeling and study are highlighted. The key characteristics of PET are analyzed and compared with alternative materials. The ineffectiveness of existing mechanisms to resolve conflicts related to PET are substantiated. Tools and institutions for the successful resolution of environmental and economic conflicts over PET in the Russian Federation are proposed. Based on Porter's theorem, it is shown the need to improve the institutional environment for stimulating and maintaining innovation. It is concluded that it is necessary to complete the equilibrium model with such institutional characteristics that will make it possible to achieve dynamic equilibrium. The research results expand theoretical and methodological works on resolving conflicts of interests and can be used in practice by state and municipal authorities.
The object of research is causal link of indicators, that allow us to estimate level of household property deprivation, and government expenditures (including tax) on improving living facilities. The goal of research is to assess the effectiveness and sufficiency of government support for purchasing and constructing houses in the fight against non-monetary poverty. Such kind of estimation is based on analysis of its influence on indicators of needs to improve living facilities, that show property deprivation as part of non-monetary poverty. Methods of research are general scientific research methods; economic and statistical analyses of dynamic series of quantitative households indicators; correlation and line-regression analyses of indicators of needs to improve living facilities (dependent variable) and financial sources of purchasing and constructing houses with government support (independent variable) in 2008-2018. Three equations of paired linear regression have been constructed with the maternal capital used for improving living facilities and the property deduction for personal income tax as predictors, estimated the significance of these equations (determination coefficient, F-statistic, average approximation error) and their coefficients (Student's t-test, p-value). The resulting equations were shown to accurately represent the relationship between the criterion variables and predictors. The author makes a conclusion that government support for improving living facilities is effective, but insufficient in the fight against non-monetary poverty. Obtained results prove the arguments in favor of the need to improve the assessing system for the level of the population’s needs to improve living facilities in the implementation of state support measures, and the procedure for its provision, primarily in terms of its increasing and compliance with the principle of fairness.
We probably live in the most defining time for information technology. The period when computing switched from large electronic computers to automatic control machines and robots, with the ability to store data in the cloud. But what makes this period truly exciting, is the democratization of various tools and methods that developed simultaneously with the development of computer technology. Data processing, which once took several days, today takes only a few minutes, and all this thanks to the development of machine learning. This is the reason why Data Science receives huge investments every year, which increases the demand for certificates in this area. Russian venture capital company and partner of the investment company iTech Capital Alexey Soloviev presented the study “Venture Barometer” on the Russian venture market. 312 representatives of the venture capital market were invited to participate in this study, of which 83 answered the questionnaire. The barometer annually asks investors about the most attractive market segments, and in 2019, as in the past 2 years, the ranking is headed by artificial intelligence and machine learning. 82% of investors voted for this field as the most promising . Data and Methods: The objective of this study is to build an optimal algorithm that predicts the rating value of an investment project for a given data set. The most popular machine learning algorithms are examined in detail, a detailed analysis of the available data is carried out, a model based on a random forest algorithm for a training data set is constructed, and testing is conducted based on test data. This research work was performed in the programming language R, with the help of which the data were analyzed, various tables and graphs were constructed, a model was built and the results evaluated based on a comparison with previously constructed algorithms: linear regression, logistic regression. Analysis of Results: The study revealed that the most optimal algorithm for predicting the rating of an investment project based on available data is the random forest algorithm, the accuracy of this algorithm is 3.7% higher than the accuracy of the linear regression algorithm based on the most significant set of project indicators.
The article discusses the features of investment activity in a depressed region on the example of the Ural region-the Kurgan region. Describes the common characteristics of the socio-economic development of territories having a depressive character. The main types of depressive regions in Russia that have developed historically are identified: old-industrial, agricultural-industrial and extractive. Examples of depressive subjects of modern Russia within the borders of Federal districts are given. The main features of investment activity in the Kurgan region are studied: the dynamics of investment in fixed assets from 2014 to 2019 is analyzed, the structure of sources of investment financing is assessed, and the most funded types of economic activity in the region are indicated. The situation of investments in fixed capital in the context of municipalities of the region is considered. External and internal factors that negatively affect the regional investment process are identified, among which the prevailing ones are: low provision of the regional budget with its own income, difficult access to borrowed financial resources, underdevelopment of the local capital market, low level of development of social infrastructure and engineering facilities. The measures of the regional administration to improve the investment climate and increase the investment activity of the region are presented. The article describes in detail the functioning of three territories of advanced socio-economic development in the region, formed to intensify investment and diversify the regional economy. Some positive results of investment activity of the Kurgan region for 2019 are presented. The national rating of investment attractiveness of the region is given. Some ways of strategic investment development of the Kurgan region according to the current strategy of socio-economic development of the region are given. The priority investment sectors of the region's economy are described in detail and further ways of investment development are indicated. In conclusion, it is noted that the activation of investment activities in the depressed region should occupy a key place not only in the socio-economic policy of the region, but also at the Federal level.
The article is devoted to statistical analysis of the impact of environmental factors on the socio-economic development of Vologda region. As an effective feature the authors consider the integral rating of social and economic development, the factor feature - the consolidated environmental index. The article consistently considers scientific approaches to the concept of "sustainable development," analyses indicators of the system of assessment of the level of sustainable development, indicators of environmental factors and socio-economic development. On the basis of the data of the All-Russian Public Organization Green Patrol and the Rating Agency RIA Rating, a comparative analysis of the Vologda region and other subjects of the Russian Federation was carried out. The main tool for analysis is the statistical apparatus. The authors show the place of Vologda region among the subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of ecological and socio-economic rating. The analysis of the dynamics of the main indicators of ecological and socio-economic development of Vologda region was carried out on the basis of basic and chain growth rates. Statistical analysis of the indicators allowed the authors to construct a mathematical model and establish a link between indicators of environmental factors and indicators of socio-economic development of the Vologda region. To confirm the accuracy and adequacy of the model, the authors applied variance analysis and regression statistics of the pair regression equation. The recommendations developed by the authors and the proposed mathematical model can be used in applied scientific research in the practice of state and municipal administration, the statistical analysis carried out will help the state and municipal authorities to take a more detailed approach to the development of programmes for the sustainable development of region.
The subject of this study is the problem of economic recovery after the pandemic-covid-19. The purpose of the study is to show a qualitative difference between the causes of the crisis caused by the viral pandemic and the crises associated with political, economic and financial reasons that took place in the XX-XXI cen-turies. The difference in causes entails fundamental differences in the means of ensuring recovery growth. Using the method of evolutionary constructivism, the article considers two of the most well-known con-cepts of recovery growth in the history of the 20th century in Russia: the concept of Groman V. and the concept of Gaidar E. It is concluded that the problem was considered in the coordinates, firstly, of restor-ing the lost level of well-being, and, secondly, through various options for the interaction of planned and market instruments. The proposed strategies for economic recovery in the post-pandemic period discuss the problem in the same context. The author of the article is critical of the proposed solutions. But, since the end of the covid-19 pandemic is at this stage only a subject of forecast, and there is no way to provide representative statistics that could serve as evidence in favor of an alternative opinion, the article gives logical arguments. It has been suggested that the basis for recovery growth after the covid-19 pandemic will be those segments of the business that managed to survive during the collapse of the global economy by the coronavirus pandemic. Observations show that the remaining segments are industries and enter-prises that have been able to develop on the basis of ICT and the digital economy. Immersion in the digi-talization process allows you to build a business on contactless communications, which is crucial for con-ditions in which contact communications are a source of life-threatening viral diseases. In mass produc-tion, digital should become the predominant type of technology, since only they can change the nature of the interaction of economic entities. Consequently, government regulation strategies should be aimed not only at restoring lost percent of GDP, but at a qualitative change in the technical basis of production, which reduces contact communications and builds up fundamentally new forms of interaction in the econ-omy and business.
A key area of this article is to advance research on Sustainable Development strategies for Food Processing Enterprise in case of financial crisis and basic types of inherent risks. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discourse on sustainability by further explaining the paradigm and its implications for food industries life cycle and actions in the quest for sustainable devel-opment. The importance of the food industry is highlighted through examples of financial, tech-nical, and innovation strategies.
The article discusses the analysis and forecasting of demand for managing the assortment of retailer’s products, as a function of the profession - analyst, for this profession various intelligent digital assistants are created that take on part of the functions. Examples of successful software products in this area are given, the relevance of a universal methodology, which will improve the efficiency of software products on the formation of the optimal product range, is noted. The developed methodology is based on the gradation of goods in three groups, the formation of which is due to the use of ABC and XYZ analysis tools. These analyzes use such characteristics of goods as: profit, demand stability, sales. For the formed groups, the characteristics of stock requirements are given and the rules for analyzing the relationship of goods from different groups are formulated, which can be expressed as related products or new products. Recommendations are given for their location. All this helps to reduce the likelihood of errors leading to a decrease in demand for a group of basic goods.
The paper considers measures to reduce operating costs for the delivery of fuel resources to the settlements of the Yamal and Taz regions of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. The economic effect is achieved due to changes in marine transport fuel delivery schemes. The current transport scheme used by the Ob-Irtysh river shipping company involves the supply of diesel fuel from the Salekhard oil depot, to which it is delivered from the Omsk oil refinery (refinery). The scheme used has high transportation costs, because after the fuel is delivered, the ship goes back unloaded. An alternative fuel supply option is proposed, in which another type of fuel is imported into the settlements - liquefied natural gas. It is proposed that liquefied gas be delivered by an upgraded river-sea tanker of the Lenaneft project. The work provides a comparison of three transport schemes: traditional, when diesel is imported to all settlements; alternative, in which liquefied natural gas is delivered to all settlements; hybrid when settlements are supplied with diesel fuel or liquefied gas, depending on their geographical location. Analysis of the effectiveness of the circuits showed that the use of a hybrid circuit is most beneficial. Its use allows to reduce the empty mileage of the vessel by 685 km, and the total mileage - by 640 km. The reduction in the total transportation time is 13 days, which significantly increases the reliability and security of supplies due to the short navigation period in the region. Using the proposed measures will reduce operating costs by 1000.9 thousand rubles. in year. The increase in the efficiency of the hybrid transport scheme can be estimated at 7% relative to the total distance traveled by the vessel, and the economic benefit of using liquefied natural gas as a motor fuel at 44%. In addition to the economic benefits and the navigational benefits of the proposed scheme, natural gas is a more environmentally friendly fuel, which is critically important for the regions of the Arctic due to tougher environmental requirements.
The article discusses the topic of the use of digital technologies in logistics. The relevance of the topic is due to increased attention to digital technologies, their development and implementation in various fields. As an example of digital technology, this article discusses blockchain, the Internet of things, and artificial intelligence. The aim of the work is to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the implementationof digital technologies in logistics companies, possible difficulties in implementation, and the analysis of companies that successfully use these technologies in their activities.Blockchain technology allows not only ensuring transparency of cargo operations and reducing risks for all participants in the supply chain, but also allows you to conclude “smart contracts” that are controlled by a computer program.The Internet of things in logistics allows you to track the location of the goods in real time, automate individual processes and control processes in the warehouse. All of this, in turn, increase customer satisfaction. Artificial intelligence has long established itself as a tool for solving logistics problems. It allows you to automate part of the company’s processes, formulate a logistician options for proposals for making decisions and predict fluctuations in calculated indicators, which simplifies the work of specialists, transferring part of everyday work to a computer.In conclusion, it was proved that despite the large number of advantages from the introduction of digital technologies, the Russian Federation is not ready for their widespreadimplementation, since there is no regulatory framework governing their use. This work was carried out as part of the research project No. 618279 "Methods and tools of innovative and entrepreneurial activity in the digital economy."
At the present stage of economic development a certain level of innovation characteristic of each production facility. Even if the company is not a leader on the innovative market, it needs to replace the old or recent technology and products. Innovation processes, application of new products and technologies are the basis for economic development. High economic growth where the development of high-tech industries motivates to improve the development of new methods of management of business processes, able to ensure the effectiveness of innovation and sustained economic growth. In recent years, the automotive industry in Russia was at a disadvantage, as the projected growth has been hampered and damaged by many negative factors. For the automotive industry and many related industries, it was particularly difficult last year. Business modeling allows you to identify «problem areas» in communication departments and individual employees, to further eliminate them using special platforms (e.g., Oracle BI), which are areas that slow down the communication process. Strategic planning and operational objectives necessary for the formation of business strategy to ensure the achievement of a number of procedures and solutions. Data and methods. The object of the study in the article are the business processes of the organization. The subject of research is the analysis of the automotive market and the organization of the process in the enterprise of automobile industry. The aim of this work is to study the sector of the automotive industry, existing business processes in the enterprise on the basis of existing theoretical and practical propositions, and development of recommendations to improve business processes on the example of enterprises in the sector of the automotive industry. The methodological basis of this research is business processes and monitor the effectiveness of their implementation. This article uses the theoretical research methods such as analysis, synthesis and abstraction, and empirical method of research, such as research information sources. Analysis of the results. The article describes the automobile industry market, the use by enterprises of the industry of innovative technologies. Based on these data, recommendations were made for changes in definition of business processes for more effective operation of companies in the automotive industry.
In the context of digital transformation of media culture, changes to its elements (media production, media consumption and media products), development of the space of dialogue and multi-platform communication there is an interactive development of everyday life by consumers. Highly competent mastery of media at the interpersonal and mass levels, the manifestation of activity and creativity by consumers in the digital environment researchers designate the term "media prosumerism." The development of media prosumerism with high speed enhances the convergence of media space, this leads to a strong change in communication and producer-consumer relations, the role of relationship actors is changing. Company executives rebuild product value chains based on co-creation marketing, focusing on prosumer initiatives. Transformations are also taking place in the digital marketing communications toolkit, development tools based on media prosumers, namely, influence marketing, new media, referral marketing, educational marketing, SMM and other tools of systemic company reputation management in the digital environment. The purpose of the publication is a theoretical study of the essence of the concept of “media prosumerism”, its influence on the formation and convergence of the media space, as well as on the tools of the structure of digital marketing communications of the company. The results of the work are the establishment of semantic boundaries of the concepts of “media prosumer” and “media proconsumer”, disclosure of the term "consumer information space", clarification of digital marketing communications tools in a converged media environment, a description of the monetary, social, and relative effectiveness of the interaction between the company and media prosumers. The paper presents a factor model that reflects the monetary performance of influencing marketing and other new digital marketing communications tools based on relationships with media prosumers.
Management. Environmental management
Currently, digitalization is of great importance - the introduction of digital tools in various industries, science, and business. The field of education is also subject to digital influence and is undergoing changes in its processes. Recently, in educational institutions in various fields of activity, digital solutions have been applied based on the capabilities of the Internet, with the help of interactive and information technologies for learning, have been adapted to a new generation of students who prefer online communication through digital devices to classical forms of communication. The purpose of the work is to study the problems of managing educational processes when using digital tools in higher educational institutions. Data and methods: assessment of the use of digital tools, which should be carried out on the basis of an analysis of their capabilities in solving the problems of transition to the paradigm of the formation of a post-industrial society. To conduct a comparative analysis, the most popular tools were used and their comparison was carried out. The study of the problems of managing the implementation of digital tools was carried out on the basis of a systematic analysis of the lower levels of the educational institution's management system, using the example of implementation in mass educational online courses (MOOCs). Analysis of the results: an assessment of the use of digital tools in education is not only necessary to facilitate the work of teachers and improve student performance, but it is also necessary to achieve a new qualitative state of the vocational education system necessary to meet the requirements of modern society and an innovative economy. Implementation of digital tools in the educational process related to the need to develop a whole range of new management methods and methods to support functions such as organization, motivation, control and coordination at the level of “teacher - student” and “line manager - student”, and it is necessary to develop normative legal acts reflecting these changes.
One of the main problems of regional development is the imbalance between economic growth and nature conservation which leads to a deterioration of the demographic situation and the health potential of the population, violation of the integrity of territorial systems and deterioration of the state of natural capital. The purpose of the work was to identify and assess trends in the ecological and economic balance of the Northern region. As an object of research, this paper considers the European North of Russia, which has a significant geostrategic and natural resource potential. The research is based on the model of ecological and economic zones of Peter Viktor. During the work revealed that in the study area is dominated by trends towards brown and black growth (for wastewater discharge and disposal of waste production and consumption), and trends in green growth (for the aggregate emissions of polluting substances in atmospheric air) is very unsustainable. The analysis of foreign experience and the conclusions obtained in the previous stages of the research, as a promising tool to improve ecological and economic balance of the proposed formation of a regional green sector, which would conduct a mandatory environmental audit, resume, state environmental funds, and supported the development of ecological entrepreneurship. The functioning of the green sector is considered on two models: North-European and North-American. In the Northern European model, the green sector is represented by authorities and public institutions funded by very high taxes. The green sector in the North American model is represented by government agencies and public organizations whose activities are supported by private and public funds, programs, and grants.
Introduction: Both in the Central Baltic (CB) countries and Russia, there is a need to develop current education regarding resource efficiency and circular economy, which is a relatively new and complex issue. The signing of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, strengthening the legislative framework of the European Union and Russia regarding the implementation of climate policy, as well as the publication of a new Circular Economy Action Plan in March 2020 determine the relevance of the chosen topic. Main part: The aim of the paper is to present the results of the two parallel twinning international projects "CREA-RE" (Creating aligned studies in Resource Efficiency) and "CREA-RE-RU" (Creating aligned studies in Resource Efficiency in Sweden and Russia). The projects were implemented between 2018 and 2020 jointly by four partner universities of the Baltic region countries - the University of Latvia in Riga, Gävle University, Sweden, LAB University of Applied Sciences, Finland and ITMO University, Russia. The main goal of the projects was to develop educational materials for the preparation of undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to strengthen cooperation between companies and universities in the field of resource efficiency and closed-loop economies. Analyze of Results: The goal of the project was achieved thanks to: 1) the development of educational materials for use in higher educational institutions; 2) the transfer of knowledge between organizations and universities through the solution of business cases, 3) the creation of an online platform for the exchange of educational materials. The activities allowed to create a unified approach to teaching and studying the topics of resource efficiency and circular economy.
It becomes an increasingly urgent problem to ensure economic security and achieve goals for modern corporations in the global economy in the context of growing organizational and technical complexity and a changing environment that creates new risks and threats. Success in solving these problems depends on adaptation to the environment and prevention of risks and threats. The economic security management of a corporation will be more effective if this process is reproducible, systematic and strategic, and also relies on constant monitoring of threats in the internal and external environment. SWOT analysis of business activities is an important element of economic security monitoring of a corporation. The aim of this work is to study threats and their prevention capabilities through a SWOT analysis as an element of economic security monitoring of Gazprom, as well as on the basis of a correlation analysis of a SWOT matrix and a comprehensive analysis of opportunities and threats, taking into account the identified strengths of the corporation. The greatest risk to the economic security of Gazprom is a combination of corporate weaknesses with potential threats to it. To solve the problems corresponding to economic security is necessary to direct the largest amount of company resources, to carry out constant monitoring and control of the internal and external environment. Strengths combined with opportunities can minimize any risks facing the company and carry out the most effective activities. The combination of strengths with threats also reduces risks or their impact on Gazprom. The interaction of weaknesses and opportunities forces the company to conduct its business in conditions of risk, which does not reveal the potential of the company. A SWOT analysis of Gazprom’s business activities allows us to identify the organization’s strengths and weaknesses, strategic opportunities and threats, which is the basis for determining the potential and real risks of the company in all areas of its activity.
Currently, appropriate technical support, without which it is difficult to imagine the sorting of letters, parcels, and other items, is the main factor determining the productivity of the post office, as well as its effectiveness. It should be noted that transport equipment in automated sorting centers has special requirements. The goal of the study is to assess the factors affecting the performance of the post office using the Design of Experiments (DOE) method. The application of this method is one of the basic cognitive devices in the development and implementation of a new structure and methods for making managerial decisions in enterprises. The object of research is the process of using a conveyor belt in communication departments. The following methods of mathematical analysis are used in the work: planning matrix, regression equation. The analysis of regulatory documents, in particular, state standards, carried out to determine the indicators of factors, showed that when using the presented methods, a number of factors should be taken into account that directly affect the production results. As a result of the study, the most significant factors affecting the performance of the post office were identified. In the framework of the experiment, a mathematical model is constructed that considers all possible interactions between these factors. As a result of checking the model for adequacy and its interpretation, optimal values are determined for the studied factors that affect the operation of the conveyor belt. This study was carried out as part of the research project No. 618279 «Methods and tools of innovative and entrepreneurial activity in the digital economy».
The article raises the problem of accounts receivable of organizations during the period of instability of the economic condition of the country - the crisis caused by the spread of coronavirus infection. This time is associated with a real need for deferring payment to customers and, often, with a deterioration in the payment discipline of counterparties, which leads to an increase in the share of doubtful and bad debts from creditor companies, that is, to an increase in the risk of a decrease in the solvency of the enterprise. With the help of competent management, companies can monitor the situation and take certain measures in a timely manner, depending on the status of settlements with debtors. The article focuses on building an effective receivables management system, and takes as an example a biotechnological and biopharmaceutical company - Biocad Closed Joint-Stock Company, for which a number of recommendations were put forward to improve the effectiveness of the current debtor debt management system and maintain a stable financial the company's position in such a difficult time for the economy and the whole country as a whole. An analysis of the company's receivables revealed problems associated with an increase in receivables in assets and a sharp increase in accounts payable, which affected the change in the ratio of debt. During the work on the article, such research methods as definition of concepts, classification, analysis and synthesis, comparison and description were applied
Управление реверсивной логистикой
Vasilenok V.L., Filimonova A.V. , Aleksashkina E.I., Merzhanova V.D.
The article presents the basic principles of the functioning of reverse logistics. The relevance of study of reverse logistics is directly related to thedigitalization of economy that does not always positively affect the functioning of enterprises. In the article the key functions from the point of view of reverse logistic are studied. Also the scheme of movement of reverse logistic is presenting here which describe how the return flows go from the final consumer (goods user) back to the manufactory.The development of e-commerce is forcing organizations to quickly adapt their activities to the requerments of online industry. The necessity of protect the environment is also asking entrepreneurs to take a responsible approach. These and not only reasons contribute to the implementation of the principles of reverse logistic in organizations which its influence on their successful development and functioning every year harder. In the work are studied the problems that companies face in the process of managing return flows as well as benefits on their use.
The study examines the features of water use on the example of the North-Western region, reveals the methods of environmental management on the example of water resources. The use of water resources is considered on the example of the industrial complex of St. Petersburg, or rather the machine-building industry. In the study, the author proposes to divide the industrial sector depending on the volume of water use and subsequently control these volumes. If water use is overstated, use penalties against enterprises, and if water resources are used economically and rationally, allocate state support in the form of subsidies and financing for water use. The article provides specific examples and specific companies in the machine-building industry depending on the volume of water use, and draws up a water use scheme taking into account the peculiarities of industrial sector Sewerage.
At present, the competitive advantages of different farms are determined by production factors, investments, and advanced technologies. The national economy of Russia is characterized by raw material specialization, attempts to improve the investment climate without focusing on the innovative development of the real sector. This state of inadequacy is due to the growing trend of the disequilibrium of the financial and real sectors of Russia and the complication of the separation of the traditional and innovative subsectors, unlike other countries, which violates the safety in the field of R&D. Data and Metods. The insufficiency of the study of the identified problem requires the application of an integrated approach, including a set of research methods, comparative, cybernetic and systemic approaches. Signs of a break in these subsectors are a small share of innovative firms, public and private capital in R&D expenditures; low level of patent activity and emigration of researchers, in contrast to developed countries. They are due to objective reasons: structural imbalances in the real sector, inefficiency of national innovation policy. The subjective reasons for the separation of sectors are determined by the lack of cultural attitudes of society in creating innovations and the demand for business agents for them. The revealed reasons for the separation of the subsectors confirm the hypothesis of their breaking. The delay in their awareness and liquidation will lead to an increase in security threats and the loss of civilizational self-sufficiency in Russia. Analys of Results. The unjustified gap in the financial sector in Russia from the real sector poses the following tasks: the need to modernize the real sector and establish relationships with the financial sector. Closing the gap between these sectors will not yet provide a solution to the gap between the traditional and innovative subsectors. Objective management decisions on creating interconnections of sectors should be based on the values of indicators of innovative development. For 2000-2018 the assessment of the level of innovative potential of Russia and its indicator components is significantly lower than their target values of the Strategy - 2020, which confirms the growing separation of sectors, the technological gap of the real sector from leading farms and the inability to bridge the gap between the traditional and innovative subsectors at present. This determines the need to develop an effective economic model, strategy and program for the formation of interconnections between sectors and subsectors of Russia on an innovative basis. A key approach to regulating the convergence of subsectors is the creation of functional interconnections between them, with the active role of the state and the optimal combination of planned and market methods.
economic processes and the inevitable digital transformation of most enterprises. Which, as a result, leads to the need for business leaders implementing the digitalization process to study this process in depth, including understanding and analyzing terminology. Therefore, the goal was to identify approaches to the definition of the terms “digital business transformation” and “digital economy”. The object of research is Russian enterprises and the economy in general. The subject of the research is the concepts of “digital transformation of business” and “digital economy”. In accordance with this goal, a number of terms “digital economy” and “digital transformation” were studied, the differences between them were identified and formulated. The evolution of the terminal process “digital business transformation” is characterized, the reasons causing changes in the interpretation of these concepts are identified, the main approaches to the development of the digitalization process are considered, and the industry specifics of the digital business transformation are studied. As a result of the study, it was found that the terms “digital transformation” and “digital economy” are interpreted differently. The digital economy can be defined as part of the GDP obtained through the use of digital means; digital transformation, in the narrow sense, represents the transition from analog to digital data, and in the broad sense, it is a business transformation through the use of new digital technologies, which leads to new competitive advantages in the digital economy. In conclusion, an author's interpretation of the concept of "digital business transformation" is proposed.
The spread of digital technologies affects a wide range of economic processes and phenomena. Thus, digitalization raises new questions about the nature of public goods. The purpose of the paper is to consider the essential aspects of the concept of public goods in the digital age. The object of research is the process of integration of public and digital goods. The article shows that transformational processes occurring in the economy have an impact on the definition of the concept of "public good". The increasing role and importance of digital goods is crucial in this sense. The paper considers the relationship between the concepts of "digital good" and "public good". The paper also considers trends in the transformation of the role of the state as a provider of public goods. The digital age is characterized by the increasing importance of many digital and non-digital public goods. Along with the possibility of creating digital public goods by users connected to the Internet, there is also a question about the role of the state. At the same time, the prerequisites for expanding the participation of the non-governmental sector in the supply of public goods in the digital economy are growing. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of the Internet as a global public good. The article specifies the role of the state as an agent whose responsibility is to ensure the solution of the problem of the digital divide within and between countries, and to develop policies to address the problems of negative externalities of digital public goods.
Дисбаланс между экономическим ростом и сохранением природы является одной из основных проблем регионального развития, приводящей к ухудшению демографической ситуации и потенциала здоровья населения, нарушению целостности территориальных систем и ухудшению состояния природного капитала. Целью работы стали выявление и оценка тенденций эколого-экономической сбалансированности северного региона. В качестве объекта исследования в данной работе рассмотрен Европейский Север России, обладающий весомым геостратегическим и природно-ресурсным потенциалом. В основе проведенного исследования лежит модель эколого-экономических зон П. Виктора. В ходе работы выявлено, что на исследуемой территории преобладают тренды в сторону коричневого и черного роста (по сбросу загрязненных сточных вод и размещению отходов производства и потребления), а тенденции зеленого роста (по совокупному выбросу загрязняющих веществ в атмосферный воздух) весьма неустойчивы. В результате анализа зарубежного опыта и выводов, полученных на предыдущих этапах исследования, в качестве перспективного инструмента повышения эколого-экономической сбалансированности предложено формирование регионального зеленого сектора, который обеспечил бы проведение обязательного экологического аудита, возобновление работы государственных экологических фондов, а также поддерживал развитие экологического предпринимательства. Функционирование зеленого сектора рассмотрено на двух моделях: северно-европейской и северно-американской. В рамках северно-европейской модели зеленый сектор представлен органами власти и государственными учреждениями, финансируемыми за счет очень высоких налогов. Зеленый сектор в северно-американской модели представлен органами власти и общественными организациями, мероприятия которых обеспечиваются за счет частных и государственных фондов, программ и грантов.