Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media
ISSN:2310-1172

December 2020 (published: 17.12.2020)

Number 4(43)

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Economics

Идентификация и оценка экологических рисков компаний нефтегазового сервиса Sergeeva I.G., Skhab N.A.

During their activities, service companies serving oil and gas production face several environmental challenges. The implementation of an environmental management system in accordance with the requirements of the international standard ISO 14001 provides asolution to these problems. One of the most important elements of this system is risk-based thinking, planning and implementation of necessary actions in relation to environmental aspects. However, currently existing methods of environmental risk management do not take into account the specifics of the activities of oil and gas service enterprises. This paper provides a methodology for identifying and assessing the environmental risks of service companies that carry out repair and maintenance of pipelines of industrial companies. The authors define an algorithm of actions when working with environmental aspects and propose criteria and methods for assessing the level of environmental risks of oilfield service enterprises, taking into account the specifics of their activities. As the main assessment methods, the usage of expert analysis methods and a risk assessment matrix in a complex are proposed.The authors also define a number of technological operations for which the identification of environmental risks is carried out, and propose measures aimed at preventing the occurrence of risk events. The developed algorithm allows to customize the process of identifying and assessing environmental risks specific to the oil and gas service industry, and can be used by oil and gas companies in the development and implementation of an environmental management system.

Совершенствование финансового планирования предприятий нефтегазовой промышленности в условиях пандемии Degtereva V.A.

The problems of modern companies determine the trends towards disclosing and studying the financial position of economic entities in order to timely identify the factors of newly emerging threats. Evaluation of these factors implies high technologies, taking into account the importance of laws and tasks that depend on external and internal factors. The formation and analysis of financial metrics and other indicators related to these technologies allows companies to autonomously track the financial environment. Financial planning and financial position are often viewed partially and as a whole, not only as an expression of the values of individual indicators, but also as their overall assessment. On the basis of this assessment, the ability of an economic entity to self-development is determined, as well as resources and opportunities for their use are determined. The object of research in the article is the financial condition of the oil and gas industry enterprise. The subject of the research is the analysis of the oil and gas market and the effectiveness of financial planning. The aim of the work is to study the oil and gas industry, analyze the financial condition based on existing theoretical and practical provisions, and develop recommendations for improving the financial planning of an oil and gas enterprise. The methodological basis of this study is business processes and monitoring the effectiveness of their implementation. The article uses theoretical research methods such as analysis and synthesis, as well as empirical research methods, such as researching information sources. The article examines the oil and gas industry market, analyzes the financial planning of a particular enterprise. Based on the data obtained, recommendations were made on changes in financial planning in order to obtain a more effective result from the company's activities.

Анализ технико-экономических показателей транспортных систем горнообогатительных комплексов Treiman M.G. , Kopanskaj A.A.

The subject of the article is the transport systems of mining plants and the study of their technical and economic indicators. The main technological processes of ore extraction and transportation are highlighted, such as preparation of rock mass for excavation, loading of rock mass, its transportation, dump formation and transportation of processing plant waste. A brief description of these processes is given and the applied means of mechanization that make up the entire transport system of enterprises are described. The article deals with seven mining enterprises specializing in the extraction of ferrous and iron-containing ores, with a capacity from 13 to 58 million tons / year. A comparative analysis of the volumes of extracted ore and overburden, ore losses, drilling volumes, volumes and types of ore transportation from the faces was carried out; a comparative analysis of the technical and economic indicators of the main types of equipment: excavators, dump trucks, railway transport. Based on the results of the analysis, it is concluded that many indicators of the mining complex depend primarily on the mining and geological conditions of natural resources and their location. These conditions also dictate the creation of an optimal and unique transport system for each field separately. In conclusion, measures to improve transport systems are outlined, highlighted in the following points: replacement of outdated equipment and technologies, digitalization of production, financial investments, greening of transport, application of state regulation, solutions to the personnel issue.

Методические аспекты проведения анализа результатов деятельности и оценки финансового состояния хозяйствующих субъектов Maslich Е.А.

In modern conditions, the activities of organizations should be based on the principles of efficiency. The company uses various sources of financial resources to generate capital. It is important to know the limits of the change in the volumes of certain types of sources of funds, which inevitably lead to the transformation of the financial condition. Financial stability ensures survival in market conditions. The generalization of scientific research has shown that most authors consider the need for the introduction of modern methods, indicators and standards to control the financial condition of the organization as the basis for increasing efficiency. Despite a wide range of works revealing the essence, methods and methods of analyzing the financial results of an enterprise, additional research requires a search for new directions and practical ways to apply analysis models in order to increase the efficiency of enterprises. The aim of the work is to systematize the methods and techniques for analyzing the results of operations and assessing the financial condition of organizations, developing recommendations for monitoring and managing financial condition. The article discusses the points of view of various authors on the essence of the category “financial condition”. Features of the application of financial statements and changes in its content to international standards are disclosed. The article systematizes the categories, indicators and methods of assessing financial condition and analysis of financial results. The approaches used in modern literature to the analysis of financial results, liquidity and solvency assessment are considered. Systematized criteria and models for assessing the financial stability of the organization.Subject of research – methodological techniques and methods for analyzing financial results and assessing the financial condition of enterprises and organizations. In the process of writing the article, methods were used: abstract-logical, analysis, synthesis, graphic, and others. The result of the study is the systematization and critical analysis of the methods and techniques for assessing the financial condition and practical recommendations for their application.

Прогнозирование трендовой динамики фондового рынка на основании макроэкономических факторов с помощью диффузного индекса Vakhrushev I.A.

Obtaining forecasts of the trend dynamics of company shares is an important task for financial market participants. Fundamental analysis is based on studies of macroeconomic relationships with stock prices and relationships between financial data and stock prices of selected companies. The central goal of the work is to make forecasts one quarter ahead for the stocks of Russian trading companies that will have relevance. The Diffuse Index has successful examples of its use in forecasting. It is important to consider that the quantitative factors that are included in this index should be at least four and no more than six. The use of the diffuse index is possible as an independent model. However, in this study, this synthetic index will be used as a factor in the regression model in order to improve the accuracy of forecasts. The main feature of the regression model for forecasting the price of shares of Russian companies in the trading industry using the example of LLC Lenta and PJSC Magnit is the use of four indicators - revenue, operating profit, net profit and retained earnings. The forecasting model for these indicators includes four macroeconomic indicators: consumer inflation index, producer inflation index, disposable income growth index and the key interest rate. Moreover, the regression model uses a diffuse index based on financial indicators and the components of the diffuse index as binary variables. As a result of forecasting one quarter (first and second quarters of 2020) ahead, the forecasting accuracy for both companies is above 80%. Using the resulting instrument, you can make a positive profit when trading stocks. The hypothesis of this work was confirmed and the goal was achieved. The usefulness of using a diffuse index has been proven in predicting stock prices.

Модель временнóго выравнивания показателей: концепция, математическая формализация и сфера применения Lisitsa M.I.

The subject of research is the feature of forecasting in the conditions of slowing growth (and then successive decrease) of the financial result from production and sales. At the same time, the work done on the topic «Model of Temporary Alignment of Indicators: Concept, Mathematical Formalization and Scope of Application», has as its goal the justification of the approach stated in the topic in combination with the forecasting method with a non-zero level of confidence: 1) the cost of production and sales; 2) the revenue from sales. The study applies the tools of the theory of algebraic equations, mathematical statistics and the theory of probability. It is proposed an approach to the identification of the period during which growing costs of production and sales are numerically equal to growing revenue from sales. The justification of required here dynamic coefficients presupposes extrapolation: 1) the costs of production and sales; 2) the revenue from sales. Hence the justification of the reliability of extrapolation involves testing the hypothesis of a non-random connection between possible estimates in time: 1) the costs of production and sales; 2) the revenue from. Model of Temporary Alignment of Indicators can be claimed by enterprises of the real sector of the economy as a tool that identifies slowing growth (and then successive decrease) of the financial result from production and sales. The developed approach makes it possible to justify the level of confidence and to forecast the period required for growing costs of production and sales to be numerically equal to growing revenue from sales.

Об экономической эффективности технологий реконструкции тепловых сетей Zaedinov A.V. , Gagulina N.L.

The increase in the number of accidents exacerbates the problems of ensuring the reliable and uninterrupted operation of heating networks. It also forces us to look for new, more cost-effective technologies for the reconstruction of these heating networks. This article analyses the effectiveness of alternative methods for restoring the internal surface of the heat network’s pipelines with subsequent maintenance in working condition for up to 50 years on the example of a network section with a length of 1 kilometer and a diameter of 1200 mm. The first method is to dismantle and completely replace a section of the pipeline, with a service life of more than 25 years, without conducting any preliminary surveys. The second method involves conducting in-line diagnostics of an outdated section using a robotic system, followed by the local elimination of detected defects. The third method, which is still innovative for Russia, is the rehabilitation of the pipeline. There are several methods of debridement. This paper particularly refers to the application of a special protective coating on the inner surface of the pipeline. For the proposed options, in the conditions corresponding to the city of Saint Petersburg, an assessment of economic indicators was performed. All cases were considered as investment projects, and for the analysis and comparison of their economic efficiency, the net present value was mainly used, calculated based on investments in the project implementation and changes in the income of the heat supply organization when adopting a particular option. The purpose of the work is to compare and select the most cost-effective of the proposed projects. As a result of the analysis, the second option is considered to be the most attractive, since it is the least expensive.

Описание рисков при регламентации бизнес-процессов предприятия Mishura L.G. , Vasilieva Yu.V. , Abduraimova N.O.

The purpose of this work is to identify risks in description of business processes at the enterprise of the defense industry. The object of the study was the business processes of enterprises, as well as the identification of risks in description of the process “Execution of contract for the supply of products” The study evaluated the risks, the main and additional characteristics of the analyzed process were determined, the process management system process “Execution of contract for the supply of products”, which displays the source of entry, exit, recipients of the exit, resources. When analyzing this process, the proven risk assessment method “Impact and Probability Matrix” is used. The advantages and disadvantages of this method are revealed. Identification of risks and registration of risks in the registry were chosen as the main research method. The information used in the risk assessment consists of previous data, namely audits, reports of the results of the risk analysis, motivated conclusions, as well as questions from interested parties. Based on the obtained data, a risk register of the process “Execution of contract for the supply of products”, which contains information about the risk by sources of their occurrence: causes of occurrence, probability of occurrence, consequences of the risk situation, risk level and measures to reduce / optimize the risk level associated with monitoring the approval of contractual documents through calls and letters matching parties and the appointment of the person responsible for maintaining the contract for the risk of “untimely execution of contractual documentation” relating to the yellow level. This method allows you to make an express assessment at the early stages of the process diagnostics according to the level of risk.

Management. Environmental management

Автоматизация в риск-менеджменте Varlamova D.V. , Dolzhenkova A.V. , Korochkina S.V.

Management systems in our time have become an integral part of enterprises and a set of measures for their management. Most of the major and leading companies have implemented not only the quality management system, but also an environmental management system, information security management system, as well as the various sectoral management systems. In the process of developing quality management systems, risk management is becoming an increasingly important part, ensuring the effectiveness of management systems in enterprises. The main purpose of the study is to develop recommendations for the risk management process and to offer possible tools for automating the process at the current stage of development of the organization. The subject of the study is the automation of risk management as a process to ensure product quality. The object of research is a confectionery company for the production of chocolates. The study uses such research methods as interviewing production personnel, a diagram of cause and effect relationships, a register of risk and a risk map. The methodological basis of the study is IEC 31010:2019 Risk management - Risk assessment methods. The study emphasizes the future development of enterprises and the active introduction of innovations to automate familiar processes and procedures that are performed manually. The study suggests as an alternative to ready-made automation software solutions, a gradual transition to automation by using tools available to the enterprise. Recommendations are given on the implementation and development of risk management on the example of one of the risks under consideration. As a result of the study, a general picture is formed of what risk management at the facility in question can look like, where at the moment there is no real risk management process. This study was carried out as part of the research project No. 618279 "Methods and tools of innovative and entrepreneurial activity in the digital economy."

Особенности и проблемы управления пространственной интеграцией экономики Европейского Севера России Kozhevnikov S.A. , Patrakova S.S.

The relevance of the research topic is due to the need for a scientific search for adequate answers to the challenges of the spatial development of Russian regions, aggravated by the transition to the market in the 90s. XX century. One of the key among them is the destruction of existing interregional ties, the intensification of disintegration processes in the country's economic space, caused, among other things, by the liberalization of foreign trade. The identified problems are very acute for the northern regions, whose economic ties in the post-Soviet period have become more focused on foreign markets, and not on integration with the southern regions of the country. In this regard, the article attempts to assess the existing and substantiate promising forms, methods and tools for ensuring the integration of the northern territories into a single economic space of the country. The aim of the work is to study the features and problems of managing the spatial integration of the economy of the northern region (based on the materials of the European North of Russia). The object of research is the northern region as a spatial socio-economic system. In the course of the study, it was revealed that the need to integrate the space of the northern regions and establish cooperative ties with the more southern territories of the country, reducing their differentiation by key development parameters has found its consolidation in strategic documents of the federal and regional levels. For this purpose, a number of interregional institutions are currently operating (for example, the Strategic Partnership North-West ANO), the functionality of which to ensure integration processes, unfortunately, is very limited. Analysis of development strategies of the subjects of the European North of Russia until 2025-2030. makes it possible to conclude that these documents very poorly take into account the current and future place of the northern territories in the all-Russian division of labor; the task of ensuring their spatial integration with other constituent entities of the Russian Federation did not find a direct fix; a significant emphasis in the development of the region's transport framework is aimed at strengthening mainly external relations, which limits the development of interregional integration within the framework of the national economic space and preserves the raw material model of the economy of these territories. Despite a certain strategic focus on the development of a polycentric model of space organization, the main emphasis in instrumental support is still placed on the development of nodal forms of space organization and "development corridors"; at the same time, the place and tools for supporting non-urban areas are rather poorly substantiated. The authors substantiated that the development of spatial integration of the European North of Russia at the intra- and interregional level can be facilitated by the implementation of a megaproject for the development of the Arctic, which will contribute to the consolidation of scientific and technical, production, personnel, infrastructural and other potential of the European North of Russia for the development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. These territories can become a driver for the growth of Russia's innovative economy in the transition to a new technological order. However, this requires a revision of the emphasis of federal economic policy. The work used general scientific research methods (abstract-logical and systematic approaches, methods of analysis, synthesis, generalization, monographic, etc.), the economic-statistical method, as well as graphical and tabular data visualization techniques. The results obtained in the course of the study are significant for federal and regional authorities in the framework of adjusting the policy and strategy for the development of the northern territories of Russia.

Экономические и управленческие аспекты внедрения финансовых технологий Nikiforova V.D., Nikiforov A.A., Viktorova V.A.

The article analyzes trends in the introduction of financial technologies in various areas of the financial market. Special attention is paid to the factors of restraining digital transformation, which acts as a multidimensional phenomenon that affects not only the financial market, but also many socio-economic processes in the country. As the expansion of the use of financial technologies becomes more and more widespread, the issues of institutional support for digitalization, including regulatory and legal regulation, and the formation of new economic thinking among the population, are becoming more relevant. Based on the analysis of the content of the concepts of "algorithmic trust", replacing the content of the concept of responsibility with "technical obligation" in the form of programmed code, the possibilities of creating conditions for reducing the level of manipulation and corruption are determined. The approach to the research from the position of actuarial network theory allowed us to reveal the issues of interaction between users and software complexes as resultant units of socio-economic relations. For a more successful implementation of the national program of the digital economy of the Russian Federation, it is important to ensure the security of transactions, protect user data and consumer rights, make a clearer legal distinction between "smart" contracts and civil contracts, recognize mining as an economic activity and introduce its licensing, develop the system of financial education of citizens, etc.

Риски естественных монополий в условиях реализации антимонопольной политики в современной России Smolenskaya S.V. , Kalyadina R.A.

Natural monopolies, as subjects of the national economy, perform certain functions that are necessary for a full and prosperous life of the population. In connection with this circumstance, the study of natural monopolies is relevant in any conditions. The subject of the research is the risks of natural monopolies in the context of the implementation of antimonopoly policy in modern Russia. The purpose of the work is to analyze the risks for natural monopolies and the risks they are the source of, in the context of the implementation of antimonopoly policy. The object of the research is natural monopolies, as well as the antimonopoly policy of Russia. The methods used in the research are general, general scientific and specific scientific methods. The study identifies the problems that accompany the activities of natural monopolies, and then, on their basis, formulates the risks emanating from monopolies and the risks that pose a threat to monopolies. A study of antimonopoly regulation in Russia is being conducted, which is designed to solve these problems. As a result of the study, it was revealed that natural monopoly is one of the main factors of the economic well-being of the subjects of the national economy, at the same time, natural monopolies play a significant role in providing society with basic goods, thereby carrying huge risks for themselves. Antimonopoly policy in relation to natural monopolies is a separate industry, which is associated with the importance of these economic entities. The results of the study can be used in the assessment by various economic entities to analyze the mutual influence of these entities with natural monopolies. And also, the identified risks can help both natural monopolies and other entities in assessing their economic security, developing strategic documents and plans, as well as in implementing their activities.

Новые вызовы к антикризисным мерам управления в условиях пандемии Vasilenok V.L., Aleksashkina E.I., Negreeva V.V., Chaika V.N.

The subject of this article is the study of the applied anti-crisis measures in business entities. The fundamental goal is presented by the rationale for the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on external and internal factors that shape anti-crisis management both in organizations and in the regions, and globally as a whole. The authors determined that the crisis affected not only the economic activities of organizations, but also various other spheres at the institutional, socio-economic, technocratic and ecological-biological levels. The sequence of studying anti-crisis measures begins with state aid to business. One of the management decisions is related to government regulation, which acts as a macro-regulator and stabilizer of business processes and the business environment. With the introduction of counter-measures, the economic situation deteriorated sharply - business activity in the country sharply decreased, a number of events planned by market participants, including by the state, did not take place, and the labor market fell. As a result, the government adopted a package of legislative decisions, including the so-called "Anti-Coronavirus Law". Other functions of the state are also of great importance: economic, political, cultural, the function of protecting human rights and freedoms; the function of assistance to ensure international peace, the function of cooperation with other states and many others. In addition, the authors analyzed the investment climate of the regions and revealed that the main investments were aimed at business diversification directly by organizations or employees of business structures. Of particular importance is the study of companies' adaptation to changes in personnel management in the context of the coronavirus crisis. It is noted that small business reacted most flexibly to the difficult managerial and economic situation during the crisis.

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