Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media
ISSN:2310-1172

December 2023 (published: 07.12.2023)

Number 4(55)

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Economics

Исследование состояния и проблем развития промышленности в российской Арктике в контексте концепции устойчивого развития Vetrova E.N.

The Arctic zone of the Russian Federation is a strategically important region, both in terms of its contribution to the country’s economy and from the point of view of state security of the northern borders. The Arctic concentrates a significant amount of strategic resources necessary to ensure the development of various sectors of the economy, in particular, industry and the Northern Sea Route. At the same time, the development of the territory must comply not only with economic efficiency, but also with compliance with environmental and social standards, i.e., in the context of sustainable development. Industrial activity in the Arctic regions has its own characteristics due to its uniqueness and specificity, therefore an important area of research is the search for ways to improve the efficiency of managing the process of its development and its potential. In this study, the author makes an attempt to assess the current state of industrial development in the Arctic precisely from the perspective of the concept of sustainable development. For this purpose, the economic, environmental and social indicators of the development of the economy of the Russian Arctic in dynamics were assessed, the polar index was analyzed, and conclusions were formulated about the presence of positive changes and problem areas. The object of the study is the economic activity of enterprises in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, mainly industrial ones. The purpose of the study is to study the state and problems in the development of industry in the Russian Arctic in the context of the concept of sustainable development. The assessment of sustainable development is based on the search for a reasonable balance between environmental, social and economic aspects in the development of enterprises, industries and territories. The study was carried out using the scientific and methodological foundations of the science of economics and management, including general methods of analysis and synthesis, as well as methods of strategic management, statistical information processing, justification of management decisions, expert assessments and visualization. The information base for the study was the scientific works of Russian and foreign scientists in the subject area, data from Russian statistics, rating agencies, expert opinions and the author’s own desk research.

"Отсталость в искусстве тратить деньги" Mitchell Wesley Clair

Readers are invited to familiarize themselves with the translation of the article devoted to financial literacy by the American economist W.K. Mitchell (1884-1948) "The Backward Art of Spending Money" (1912) [1], known to the Russian reader, first of all, as the founder of conjunctural-statistical institutionalism. This article opened the collection with the same name (1937) [2], which included W.K. Mitchell's works devoted to problems beyond the framework of conjunctural-statistical problems. Since today financial literacy issues are receiving a lot of attention at all levels and forms of education, W.K. Mitchell's ideas on the backward art of spending money will be interesting to read. As Mitchell writes, "...much of the free advice given on mending our ways is sound. Conscience admits the first, common sense the second. But in our haste to plead guilty we forget certain mitigating circumstances which might go far toward recommending us to the mercy of an impartial court. To spend money is easy, to spend it well is hard. Our faults as spenders are not wholly due to wanton ness, but largely to broad conditions over which as individuals we have slight control." [2, с. 269]. The relevance of this article is that promoting the ideas of financial literacy in the domestic literature and financial education, little attention is paid to the fact that the presence or absence of financial literacy is manifested in the art of managing finances in the household.

Институциональная ловушка в электроэнергетике – нарратив Иркутской области Kalyuzhnova N.Ya.

The article discusses the issue of introducing differentiated electricity tariffs for the population in the Irkutsk region. The purpose of the work is to show that the justification for the introduction of diftariffs by the need to combat mining among the population of the region is untenable, both from factual and theoretical points of view. An analysis of the types of mining in the region was carried out, and it was concluded that the so-called. “Gray” mining refers to activities that are heterogeneous in terms of their legal basis, which is done to create a negative image of the miner. Analysis of the dynamics and structure of electricity consumption does not confirm the unprecedented increase in electricity consumption by the population due to mining and is associated primarily with the growth of individual housing construction; and the growth of industrial mining, driven by energy companies, is significantly outpacing the growth of home mining. The struggle to increase tariffs is considered as a manifestation of an institutional trap in the regional electric power industry; the historical roots and reasons for the origin of the institutional trap are considered. The struggle to increase tariffs is considered as a manifestation of an institutional trap in the regional electric power industry; the historical roots and reasons for the origin of the institutional trap are considered. The position is substantiated that the introduction of diftariffs before the advent of the law on mining provides the basis for arbitrariness in the conditions of local monopoly of energy companies.

Management

Сквозные технологии и инструменты управления бизнес-процессами в условиях санкционных ограничений Konovalova Yu.S. , Burtsev D.S.

Currently, Russian companies are facing a number of difficulties related to the use of foreign software products in their activities. Sanctions imposed by unfriendly countries have restricted access to familiar programs and advanced technologies, including semiconductors and technologies related to robotics and artificial intelligence. It also made it necessary to actively develop and implement end-to-end technologies and domestic software into the practice of enterprises. The research is relevant at the present time, since the topic of end-to-end technologies for managing business processes under sanctions is new and poorly studied. The purpose of the study is to consider the possibility of using and developing end–to-end technologies to support business processes in new realities. The article presents an analysis of the market of business process management systems in Russia, makes recommendations on the choice of software for modeling business processes, highlights the advantages of Russian software in comparison with foreign, draws up a plan for the company's transition to domestic software, analyzes the statistics of the introduction of business process management systems, calculates the indicator of the introduction of domestic software in Russian business, a comparative analysis of the development of end-to-end technologies in Russia before and after sanctions was carried out, a risk assessment matrix for the development of end-to-end technologies in the new realities has been compiled, recommendations on the use of end-to-end technologies in the conditions of sanctions restrictions have been developed. The methodological basis of the study was the use of private and general scientific research methods, such as analysis, comparison, observation and expert assessments. The object of research is end-to-end technologies. The subject of the research is end–to-end technologies and business process management tools in new economic realities. The result of the work was the conclusion that the main risks of the development of end-to-end technologies are the restriction of access to world technologies, the complication of international cooperation, the disruption of projects in the field of end-to-end technologies, the decline in the level of the scientific and technological base of Russia. The conducted research provides recommendations to companies wishing to maintain or improve their efficiency in the face of sanctions restrictions. The results obtained will be used to develop recommendations for the digital transformation of enterprises.

Управление развитием экологически ориентированных предпринимательских структур в условиях цифровой трансформации Litau E.Y. , Sologub A.N.

The article addresses the matters of the development and management of modern entrepreneurial projects in the context of digital transformation. The study presents a comparative analysis of the changes in the quantity and value orientations of market-leading unicorn companies from 2021 to 2023. The research highlights a noteworthy increase in ethically oriented initiatives, specifically those directed towards promoting societal well-being. Environmental projects emerge prominently among these endeavors, contributing significantly to the preservation and sustainable development of the environment. The data indicate a deepening integration of green aesthetics into everyday life, reflecting a broader trend towards the incorporation of "bio" principles across various aspects, including interpersonal relationships. Consequently, the universal human consciousness appears to be ready to embrace "e-ideas" encompassing ecology, ethics, and esthetics within the context of economic development, which, in turn, indicates the maturity of economic entities. The study establishes that the management and development of the analyzed projects are based on digital transformation, the outcomes of which lead to, inter alia, the creation of additional ethical value for goods. This additional value serves as a crucial competitive advantage for market leaders, which contributes to the establishment of the modern humanistic entrepreneurship theory and has a significant impact on the promotion of sustainable development ideas. The advancement of environmental projects is made possible through the application of innovative methods in the management of digital assets. Such a strategy plays an important role in shaping not only the future metaverse but also acts as a catalyst for "creative destruction," thereby starting the processes for realizing the concept of global coevolution as the sole viable paradigm for innovative entrepreneurship. These processes result in a conceptual shift in the understanding of social action, wherein entrepreneurs, in the course of project management, must account for the multidirectional vectors of value orientations. The recognition of the limitations that pursuing solely economic objectives can give, coupled with the expansion of motives for entrepreneurial behavior into the "boundless ethics" contribute to the implementation of the most promising market strategy.

Проблемы и перспективы развития транспортно-логистических систем на основе внедрения инноваций в условиях арктической зоны Budrina E.V.

The article examines the features of the organization of transport logistics in the Arctic zone, identifies problems and prospects for the development of transport and logistics systems based on the introduction of innovative technologies. The purpose of the study is to identify innovative technologies that contribute to the innovative development of transport and logistics systems in the special climatic and territorial features of the Arctic zone, which places high demands on technology, equipment, and infrastructure facilities. The experience of using innovative technologies in transport and logistics activities is studied and summarized; the requirements and types of equipment and technologies applicable in the conditions of the Arctic zone are determined using the method of comparative analysis. Conclusions and recommendations on priority technologies and equipment for implementation are formulated.

Выбор модели MVNO для повышения конкурентоспособности предприятия в концепции устойчивого развития «умных» территорий Pupentsova S.V. , Kobzev V.V., Makarov V.M., Livintsova M.G.

The Russian market of virtual mobile operators is in the stage of active development, supporting the concept of sustainable development of "smart" territories. Traditionally, successful virtual operator models are built on a strategic plan and constant work with the audience of their users, but innovative projects require additional risk analysis. The purpose of the study is to develop an improved mechanism for selecting a model of Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) to improve the competitiveness of the enterprise within the concept of sustainable development of "smart" territories, characterized by detailed forecasting of cash flows and discount rate, taking into account the uncertainty factor through simulation modeling. Results. The developed mechanism was tested on the example of a company belonging to the branch of national economy other than telecommunications and planning to provide mobile communication services to external customers of the company. The developed mechanism of choosing a business model of a virtual mobile operator (or a model of providing mobile services under its own brand while using the infrastructure of another operator) is characterized by detailed forecasting of cash flows and discount rate taking into account the uncertainty factor. The developed mechanism has a number of limitations: the mechanism is applicable to the selection of MVNO models by companies that are not subsidiaries of the main players in the telecommunications and information technology industry and are not part of the ecosystem of large banks, and only the main ones are considered: Full MVNO, Service Operator, Reseller. Possible directions for future research can be based on the construction of a mechanism for selecting MVNO models for major telecommunications and information technology industry players and companies that are part of the ecosystem of large banks.

Управление рисками в условиях недобросовестной конкуренции в целях обеспечения экономичесой безопасности России Shchelakova V.A.

The relevance of the research topic is due to the fact that unfair competition threatens the economic security of the state. In this regard, the article presents an analysis of the current state and dynamics of unfair competition, as well as its impact on the economic security of organizations. Special attention is paid to the issues of protecting the economic security of organizations operating on the principles of fair competition. The importance of close attention to unfair competition is explained by the tendency of high-tech markets to monopolization based on a high degree of concentration of capital. The article notes that despite a fairly large number of theoretical studies in the field of competition, the lack of a systematic presentation of the problem is fixed, in particular, the question of the relationship between the concepts of "unfair competition" and "monopolistic activity" has been debatable for a long time, since each of the concepts is a multifaceted phenomenon. Another problem that requires close attention is the development of a clear understanding of the content of antimonopoly regulation of business activity on the Internet and the definition of the role of the state in solving this issue. The relevance of the above-mentioned problems determines the need for a deeper and systematic analysis of the prospects for further development of competition law, followed by the development of proposals to solve existing problems in this area in order to improve the economic security of organizations. The article analyzes the causes of threats to the economic security of organizations from unfair competitive actions in the market; examines the current state and dynamics of the development of unfair competition in Russia; analyzes the impact of unfair competition on the economic security of organizations; considers methods and forms of state influence on unfair competition in Russia; presents directions for improving the fight against unfair competition aimed at strengthening economic security organizations.

Влияние неопределенности и риска на поведение предпринимателей, их количество и выбор сферы деятельности Poltoratskaiy Т.B., Shapiro N.A.

The paper examines the impact of uncertainty and risk on entrepreneurs by analogy with the ideas of M. Friedman and L. J. Savage, who divided the economically active population into groups based on psychological perception of risk. This division allows, based on a probabilistic approach, to quantify the relative size of groups of entrepreneurs prone to different types and areas of entrepreneurial activity. The validity of the presented classification and subsequent logical conclusions is tested by two methods. The theory of probability and the resulting mathematical theory of entropy by K. Shannon, as well as game-theoretic analysis of the probability matrix for generating income under different states of uncertainty, were used. At the same time, the level of uncertainty in the economic environment is considered as the state of nature of the class of games with nature. A game matrix was constructed and various outcomes of the game were considered when an individual used one or another criterion. The results confirm the hypothesis about the legitimacy of using the approach of M. Friedman and L. J. Savage to classify entrepreneurs. Taking into account the qualitative heterogeneity of entrepreneurs in relation to risk and uncertainty allows us to draw conclusions about the measures and nature of the impact of economic policy on the development of entrepreneurship and adjust the expected results. An element of novelty can be considered the clarification of ideas about the intentions of an economic entity or the choice of strategy by an individual for engaging in entrepreneurship. It is shown that entrepreneurship becomes widespread at a low level of uncertainty, which corresponds to a guaranteed small but stable income. In an economy with a low level of uncertainty, in addition to risky individuals, the ranks of entrepreneurs are replenished with risk-averse subjects who count on moderate incomes. It is concluded that the level of development of entrepreneurship, especially in the field of small and medium-sized businesses, has a close connection with the individual’s psychological attitude towards risk. It is recommended to take this factor into account when developing and implementing programs to support and develop entrepreneurship.

Стратегическое становление развивающихся отраслей промышленности Российской Федерации с учетом цифровой трансформации, определяющей новую модель экономического развития Prokhorov A.P.

The aspects of the development of strategic developing industries of the Russian Federation, taking into account digital transformation, are considered. It is determined that the new round of the scientific and technological revolution has opened up great opportunities for industrial transformation and has become a new driving force for the development of the national economy. In the process of promoting the qualitative development of strategic developing industries, the digital economy plays an important role. The aim of the work is to analyze strategic developing industries in the context of increased uncertainty in the external environment, as well as serious competition for the homogenization of industry between regions. The object of the study was a new model of economic development of the Russian Federation proposed by President V.V. Putin, which was studied using the method of economic experiment. Innovation-driven data elements play a catalytic role, contribute to the transformation of the old and new models of economic development, innovation and development of the entire chain of procurement, production, sales and circulation, as well as generate the economy of new industries, new formats and new business models, integrate and release the values of traditional factors of production. With the development of data analysis and digital inclusive finance capabilities, it is possible to solve the problems of information asymmetry in the traditional financing process and the complex lending process, as well as solve the problems of enterprises in strategic developing industries, especially small, medium and microenterprises. Through the monitoring and analysis of corporate data, it is possible to increase the success rate of corporate innovations, which contributes to solving the problem of key technologies in the industrial chain, allowing in turn to increase the stability and security of the entire industrial chain and supply chain of strategic developing industries. A specific way to implement digital transformation to stimulate high-quality development of strategic emerging industries is to accelerate the creation of characteristic clusters and promote high-quality joint development between regions. It is necessary to take full advantage of the advantages of large world countries and large markets in order to overcome the threshold value of economies of scale and form differentiated and profitable industrial clusters.

Применение когнитивных технологий для оптимизации бизнес-процессов Kalakutskaya E.S. , Gavrilyuk E.S.

High competition in a market economy gives rise to the top management's desire to continuously search for effective tools to manage the company. Rapidly changing market conditions and competitive environment indicate that business processes must be continuously improved for a company to operate successfully. The key task is to find an answer to the question of how to continuously transform business processes in the company without harming the existing ones in the process of transformation, as well as with minimal involvement of additional resources. In the previous work [1], devoted to the peculiarities of decision-making under uncertainty, the authors concluded that one of the promising directions in this area is the application of knowledge from the field of cognitive science. In recent years, the results of research in this area have found active application in practice: various intelligent systems based on cognitive technologies have been developed, which are aimed at optimising various business processes. Such systems include ERP systems (enterprise resource planning), GIS systems (geographic information systems), business process modelling tools based on company data, risk modelling systems, etc. Companies strive to implement advanced technologies to monitor, control, transform and improve the efficiency of their internal processes, personnel training, but this does not always help them to achieve a more competitive position in the market. The relevance of this study is due to the need to achieve a competitive advantage in market conditions, which requires an in-depth analysis of the cognitive technologies used and an assessment of the effectiveness of their implementation in the activities of a particular company. Thus, we can formulate the object and subject of this study. The object of the study is cognitive and neurotechnologies. The subject of the study - effects from the application of cognitive and neurotechnologies in business processes.

Модель взаимодействия драйверов развития бизнеса при преодолении барьеров цифровой трансформации промышленных предприятий Zajchenko I.M. , Nikolaeva A.M. , Zhou Haonan, Semiletova A.R.

The research is devoted to the urgent problem of digital transformation of industrial enterprises in the context of the fourth industrial revolution. The economy is rapidly transitioning from traditional to digital, business conditions are changing, there are both dangers and new opportunities in the digital space. The object of research of this article is the models of digital transformation. The subject of the study is the assessment of the degree of digital transformation. The purpose of the study is to develop a reference model of driver-stimulus and driver-motive interaction in overcoming the barriers of digital transformation of enterprises. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are highlighted: determining the level of digital activity of enterprises, developing a model for assessing the influence of drivers and stakeholders, and identifying the risks of the digital transformation stage. The article used such research methods as theoretical and practical, from theoretical methods the authors used analysis and classification, from practical methods the authors used description. The distinctive feature of the proposed model is the division of drivers by the nature of their impact on the driver-motive and driver-stimulus, the determination of the degree of their interaction, as well as the identification of factors that are barriers that prevent the digital transformation of industrial enterprises in the digital economy and increase the level of digital maturity of business in general, as a necessary condition for creating and retaining competitive advantages in the modern world. Thus, studying the impact of factors on the digital transformation of industrial enterprises is key to the effective development of business in the digital economy, and it is also important to consider the risks of digital transformation, such as economic risks, security and personnel competencies.

Finance

Оценка динамики изменения капитализации российских компаний после IPO Onore A.S. , Fedko T.S. , Sosnilo A.I.

In this article the authors analyze the current state of IPO on Russian stock exchanges. Various views of researchers on the topic under study are highlighted. The paper uses general scientific research methods (analysis, synthesis, generalization and comparison). The relevance of the chosen topic of the study is due to the need to be able to effectively assess the investment attractiveness of the enterprise and its ability to effectively conduct business after the IPO. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficiency of doing business by a public company in 10-15 years after the initial public offering on the example of PJSC "Magnit" and GC "Rusagro" by calculating the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and return on investment capital (ROIC). To analyze the capitalization of public companies, the existing methods of its assessment (market capitalization method and analysis of the value of the multiplier of the market value of the company to net profit), their advantages and disadvantages were considered, and a method of assessing the investment attractiveness of the company and business success with the help of WACC and ROIC indicators was proposed.The article presents step-by-step calculations of both indicators for two Russian companies, in the case of WACC two methods were used due to negative values for 2022 due to the unstable geopolitical situation that affected the value of shares that are included in the calculation of the indicator. The obtained values of return on invested capital are compared with the weighted average cost of capital in order to evaluate the success of the company's management in running the business. In conclusion, the values for each company (PJSC “Magnit” and GC “Rusagro”) are analyzed respectively and a conclusion is made about more efficient business conduct of one of them. Prospects for research in this direction can be traced in the analysis of the impact of the geopolitical situation on the capitalization and WACC, ROIC indicators of companies.

О механизме предупреждения банкротства проблемных банков в России Krolivetskaya V.E. , Maslovskaya E.O.

The objective of the article is to, on the basis of the current legislation «On Insolvency (Bankruptcy)» analyze and characterize the measures taken by banks, both independently and forcibly by authorized bodies, in relation to problem credit institutions experiencing serious financial difficulties, in order to prevent them bankruptcy. For this purpose, the following are considered: sanctions restrictions affecting the Russian economy, macroprudential policy instruments and regulatory easing in order to maintain financial stability and sustainability, international practice of applying financial recovery measures; the grounds for the application of specific measures, the measures (instruments) themselves, as well as sources of funds for the rehabilitation of banks and the financing mechanism through their measures to prevent bankruptcy and rehabilitate problem banks. Particular attention is paid to the mechanism for rehabilitating problem banks by the Bank of Russia itself through the Banking Sector Consolidation Fund. The purpose of the article is to identify the advantages and disadvantages of these measures, rehabilitation and financing mechanisms for credit institutions experiencing financial difficulties, by authorized bodies (Bank of Russia, Deposit Insurance Agency, Banking Sector Consolidation Fund), and also to propose an alternative mechanism. In connection with the introduction of sanctions aimed at various sectors of the Russian economy, including the banking sector, there is an increase in credit institutions experiencing a deterioration in their financial situation, and forced to subsequently face reorganization, and in the worst case, undergo liquidation and revocation of their license, which lies the relevance of the article.

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