Economics and ecological management
Increasing innovative activity is one of the priorities for the development of the country’s economy. The article considers the types of resources necessary to implement innovation activity, focusing on the study of financial resources that play a key role in ensuring the innovation process. The author has summarized and extended the existing classification of financial resources used to support innovation. The relevant criteria have been selected: type of source. type of ownership. management position, timing. government characteristics, stage of the project life cycle in terms of innovation, type of investee. The structure of internal costs for technological innovation in Russia has been analyzed as a function of various sources of financing. Internal funding has been found to be the main source. The main challenges of financing innovative projects have been identified, ways of meeting them suggested. The role of forming an effective system of public-private partnership (PPP) as one of the key directions in ensuring efficient financing innovative projects with government participation has been outlined.
In terms of increasing attention towards the problem of single-industry towns in Russia from the Government and institutions of regional development there is a need to measure the impact of the state of city-forming enterprises on the stability of monoprofile municipalities. Historically, the phenomenon of single-industry towns is determined primarily by the dependence of socio-economic development of settlement on the city-forming industry or enterprises. However, due to the change of the factors behind criticality of single-industry townsposition over time and updating the priority methods of evaluation, the state of city-forming enterprises affects monotownrisk with a varying egree. The topicality of the problem stated is connected with the necessity of adequate monotowns risk evaluation and boosting efficiency of measures implemented by state government. Undertaken actions shouldin fluence improving socio-economic stability in monoprofile municipalities favorably by applying economic policy instruments in practice. In the article, the attempt is made to identify to what extent the state of city-forming industry determines the current risk level (set at the national level) of any monoprofile municipality. The article assesses the applicability of economic policy instruments to reduce the risks of single-industry towns. It is shown that diversification of business, including support for small business, leads to the stability of the monotown economy only under the condition of an external source of inflows from trade with other regions.
The article deals with the actual problem of the development of entrepreneurship within the framework of the integration space of the Eurasian Economic Community. The purpose of the study is to analyze the prospects for the development of financial architecture in three alternative scenarios. We consider one of the most important elements of financial architecture - the volatility of the financial market. This parameter of the business environment differently promotes the spread of different types of business. In conditions of high volatility, big money is earned on short-term trading and financial transactions. With a low level of volatility and risk, the real sector of small and medium businesses is developing. Probabilistic statistical methods are used as research methods. Based on the data on lending to small and medium-sized businesses, the volatility of lending rates is estimated. The estimation is made by means of the coefficient of variation, calculated as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mathematical expectation. This method excludes the influence of the dimension factor. The intersection of the impact of the volatility risks of the financial market and the attitude to risk on the part of entrepreneurs of small and medium business is examined. As a result of the research, the following conclusions were obtained: a high level of volatility in the whole of the European Economic Area will contribute to the development of the financial and speculative business for all the countries joining the union. Different volatility indicators for the national financial markets will help to concentrate this business in countries with high volatility. A low level of volatility contributes to the development of the real sector of the economy. Achieving a low level of volatility of the financial market throughout the EEA will lead to this goal. The article is devoted to some aspects of the impact of global Finance on business and the possible reaction of business to this effect. The study is based on probabilistic-statistical analysis of volatility of financial market instruments. The volatility of financial market instruments has a significant impact on almost all subjects of the national market, and today it is difficult to ignore this fact, including the development of small and medium-sized businesses. Research tools are the concepts and meanings that are deeply rooted in contemporary scientific discourse about the finances: "financial architecture" and "volatility". Stochastic volatility analysis made on the basis of the author's clarification of the method of its assessment. The complexity and inconsistency of the impact of the global financial market manifested in the fact that it itself has become a significant business, surpassing the income of a business in the real sector. How to use the instability of modern financial situation of the space for economic integration to realize the objectives of the entrepreneurs have a different attitude to risk, doing business in the financial sector and the real sector of small and medium business, is considered in this article.
In the conditions of the volume increasing of production waste generation and consumption with a low level of their utilization, the Russian Federation entities are tasked to form effective systems of waste management by 2019. In this regard, it seems relevant to systematize the effects of improving the waste disposal scope at the meso-level and to highlight the most significant of them. To solve this problem, we use systemic and deductive approaches, as well as general scientific methods of research. The study showed that the ecological effects of recycling for the territory development were studied in the most detailed way. The content of the economic effect is controversial, since the recycling influence on the state spheres of the economy and business entities is multi-valued and multi-directional. The social, scientific and technological effects are poorly researched. The article proposes the effects classification depending on the criteria of economic growth in the neo-industrial economy (sustainability, innovation and inclusiveness); their grouping depending on the impact on the territory development (direct and indirect effects) and on the order of occurrence and impact on the waste streams and secondary resources (first, second and third order effects). It is concluded that the net economic effect for the territory is formed not as a sum of effects obtained by business and households, but as a result of the development and functioning of the recycling industry. The results of the study can be used to assess the aggregated recycling effect on the territory development, as well as the effectiveness of the territorial authorities’ activities, regional operators, other entities in the field of waste management and the quality of population life.
Management. Environmental management
Looking at evolution of industrial enterprises, one can observe a tendency of displacement of production processes culture by consumption processes culture. A combination of both is able to ensure optimal planning and utilization of enterprise’s resources. Unfortunately, this subject is not adequately covered by modern literature, but today challenges of resource management are rising. The foundations of scientific industrial management, introduced by F.Taylor and others in the beginning of previous century, do not find practical implementation in modern industry. The object of research is a modern industrial enterprise. The subject of the research: business culture of an industrial enterprise. The purpose: to justify the use of the resource approach to the management of innovative development of the enterprise as a way of bringing together modern business culture and traditional industrial culture by the example of a particular enterprise model. Methodology: methods of analysis and synthesis, system and strategic analysis, fuzzy sets method. Authors of the article propose to use resource approach to management of innovations development of enterprise to bring together modern business culture and traditional production culture, and give an example of a specific industrial enterprise. The work makes an effort to contest idea, that resource approach is not capable of considering such factors as speed of technological changes and quality standards, which are important for innovations development of an industrial enterprise.
Research is presented in article which purpose consists in increase of market value of trade enterprise by application of effective methods of management; object of research are trade enterprises, as an object of research the methods of management of trade enterprise considered as from a position of the general approaches of management act: planning, the organization, control, updating and taking into account the specifics of trade enterprise concerning trade technological processes, resources, trade expenses and commodity turnover; the area of quality management most important now is allocated and quality management methods, actual for trade enterprise, such as "precisely in time", "economical production", "six sigma", "innovative improvement of processes" are considered; according to progressive approaches to a financial assessment of efficiency the objective criterion of increase of market value on the basis of the analysis of an economic value added is defined; typical methods of management of trade enterprise and their drivers are considered, methodical recommendations of a strategic choice of methods of management on a basis economic - financial criteria of an economic value added and market value of the enterprise are submitted, the sequence of calculations for an assessment of efficiency and a choice of the most effective method is created, approbation of a technique is carried out, are presented quantitative given on the main indicators of efficiency, reflecting application of various methods of quality management in a retail distribution network, the conclusions and recommendations allowing to carry out a strategic choice of methods of management in trade enterprise are drawn.