Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media
ISSN:2310-1172

September 2022 (published: 27.09.2022)

Number 3(50)

Home

Economics

Динамика развития студенческих стартапов на базе инновационной инфраструктуры ВУЗа Stazharova D.M. , Budrina E.V.

The legislative and organizational initiatives of the state are aimed at achieving not only sustainable but also groundbreaking economic growth as soon as possible. The preeminent drivers for such growth are innovations. Within this context, it is significant to understand the initial sources where innovations can be created and who can endeavor in them. Hence, this leads to the need to study innovative infrastructures. Scholarly interest in this subject matter can be observed throughout an academic environment. Scholar works have been exploring variations of the definition of the term, defining the essence of the innovative infrastructures, their shapes, and types. One of these forms is the innovative infrastructure of a higher educational institution. Today, post-secondary institutions are forming the trend for experience-oriented education not only focusing on upbringing a new generation of valuable personnel and managers but also on establishing new startups and businesses. The purpose of this study is to examine the innovation infrastructure at ITMO University and its impact on the development of students’ startups. The objective of this study is to analyze the elements of the ITMO University innovation infrastructure responsible for bringing students’ projects from the idea stage to implementation in real life. The review of scientific works of Russian and foreign researchers on the subject of research is carried out, and the author's definition of the concept of "innovative infrastructure of the university" is given. During this analysis, the main elements of ITMO's innovation infrastructure were studied; the fundamental economic, social, and educational effects of their activities were highlighted.

Устойчивое развитие социально-экономических систем: региональный аспект Volkov A.R. , Afanassenkova A.V.

The concern of the population about the undermining of the ecological balance as a result of the desire for a lifestyle like in industrialized countries can be traced back to the early 1960s. As a result of the improvement and development of this issue, people have concluded that the balance of such components as ecology, economy and social component is dominant in solving economic issues. This balance is necessary not only within the framework of the global world economy, but also on the scale of the regions of a particular country. Using data from a survey of Russian companies from different industries, was shown how enterprises currently relate to the implementation of the concept of sustainable development in the corporate strategies of their organizations. A significant share of the top 3 barriers to the transition of enterprises to sustainable development is the lack of support from the government. The paper outlined the mechanisms of transition to a "green" economy, as well as financial support tools. Now, the financing of "green" projects is mainly carried out through public finances and bank loans. The example of St. Petersburg shows how the use of ESG strategies affects the sustainable development of companies and the region. In the rating of socio-economic development of Russian regions, St. Petersburg took second place in 2021, improving its position by 21 points compared to 2020, according to the rating agency RAEX. This suggests that the introduction of ESG principles in the socio-economic development of regions contributes to the well-being of the population both at the regional and national levels.

Особенности учета неопределенности и риска в экономическом анализе инновационных проектов Voroshin E.A., Kolesnikov A.M. , Kvasha N.V. , Malevskaya-Malevich E.D.

The nomination of the innovation sector as a key driver for the development of the industrial sector, which is traditionally the foundation of the economy, has become a global trend. This form of economic development is the basis of national security and technological independence of the state. In conditions of high uncertainty, the management of enterprises is faced with the problem of finding effective risk management strategies. The purpose of the study is to develop an approach to accounting for uncertainty and risk in the economic analysis of innovative projects. The objectives of the study include identifying the main features that characterize the risk assessment of innovative projects; consideration of existing approaches to the analysis and risk assessment of innovative projects; formation of an approach most suitable for the economic analysis of an innovative project, taking into account the specifics of its risks; determination of the direction of further research. The study uses a broad interpretation of risk, which refers not only to the likelihood of adverse events, but to a greater extent, the probability of a positive deviation of the result. It turns out to be effective to use risk management methods that allow preserving the possibilities of favorable deviations, characterized as acceptance methods. To account for the uncertainty of innovative projects, the study uses the method of real options, the problem of evaluating which is solved by using approaches to the evaluation of financial options, using two basic evaluation methods - the Black-Shows model and the Cox-Ross-Rubinstein model. The study proposes an author's approach to taking into account risks in the economic analysis of innovative projects characterized by a long-term nature, specificity or uniqueness of resources or results, ambiguous structure, staging, which causes additional uncertainty. This approach allows minimizing losses in the event of an unfavorable development of events and retaining additional benefits if the economic dynamics is positive. The flexibility of innovative projects, the level of which is characterized by the presence of real options, becomes one of the main factors of efficiency in conditions of increased uncertainty. The considered concept of risk acceptance is based on the attitude towards uncertainty as a source of additional cost, contained in flexibility, which is of an improbable nature.

Анализ эколого-экономической ситуации на рынке по обращению с отходами в Российской Федерации Treiman M.G. , Ignatova D.Y.

An ecologically clean environment is a human priority. Global problems of modernity such as air, water, soil pollution, crop failures, the fight against unauthorized dumps and climate change - all this proves the interrelation of man and nature. The purpose of the study is to present the results of a systematic analysis of information about the state of the waste market in the Russian Federation, a description of the priorities of the direction of work in the field of waste management. Relying on the empirical data from qualitative research of domestic and foreign experts, and also statistical data of the Ministry of natural resources, the Russian ecological operator and nature protection regulating bodies we study the ecological situation in the country and how it was affected by the state of waste management in the country. The object of the study is the waste market in the Russian Federation. The main condition of effective measures for production and consumption waste management is a well-developed infrastructure network consisting of enterprises for waste management and participants in the management process. The possibility of processing selective fractions of waste mass leads to the economic growth of the regions, as there are resources for the recycling of valuable raw materials. This concept implies the need for separate waste collection, recycling and reuse. A steady increase in such facilities is necessary for the economic development of the country. After all, poorly utilized or not exported waste has a negative impact on the health of the population of the country and the ecological situation in it, and the economic costs in the future restoration of the damage caused to environmental objects in the region can increase many times more than the cost of creating a project to develop and implement waste management systems.

Экосистемный характер трансформации современных промышленных систем на основе открытых инноваций Kirillova E.A.

The needs of industrial production, sustainable development society and state determine the feasibility and effectiveness of implementation, scale, direction, forms and pace of innovation. Digital platforms and the use of end-to-end technologies realize the possibilities of creating a personalized offer for end users interested in receiving the entire range of innovative services/works at all stages of the innovation process while reducing the cost of searching and comparing them. Managerial decision-making, using limited resources, specialization of production processes within only one of the stages of the innovation cycle, cause an increased need for such a form of innovative activities implementation as scientific and industrial cooperation on the basis of public-private partnership, providing for cooperation not only in the field of production, but also in the field of research and development design works aimed at mutual coevolutionary sustainable development and improvement. Such changes in macro and micro conditions of activity determine the need to search for new forms and principles of organization and management of production and economic activities. The article analyzes the current changes in the industrial and social environment, the transformation of the subjects themselves and the trends of these transformations based on the revealed patterns. Based on them, a model of an innovation ecosystem is presented, which is a tool for its sustainable development, within which opportunities are presented for identifying and stimulating growth, building up and transforming its key "nutritional" components - complementary, acting in the co-development and competitive partnership of individual entities value chain, as well as interconnection and coordination of individual elements activities in order to increase the effects of the system as a whole, an example of which can be the model of the innovation ecosystem presented in the article. Its definition is given.

Теоретические аспекты обеспечения устойчивого развития на микроуровне Sekushina I.A. , Lebedeva M.A.

The topic of sustainable development has not ceased to be relevant for several decades. This is also confirmed by the fact that 2022 has been proclaimed the year of research in the field of sustainable development. Most of the works on this topic are devoted to ensuring sustainable development at the macro and meso levels, at the same time, similar studies on the micro level of the economy are not given due attention. The aim of the work was to identify the features of ensuring sustainable development at the micro level. When studying the theoretical aspects of the problem, it is established that sustainable development is ensured only in the socio-ecological and economic system due to the constant, integrated and balanced development of its constituent subsystems, taking into account the connections between them. Connections in such a complex system are dual and carry both positive and negative effects. In addition, it is proved that the company can also be considered as a socio-ecological-economic system, the connections in which work according to the same principles as in a similar system of higher levels. It is revealed that the key differences between the ESG concept and the concept of sustainable development are undemanding to economic growth, as well as the fact that a firm, being an adherent of this standard, may not ensure the balanced development of its subsystems, but only implement individual improvements in each of them. The theoretical significance of the work is to expand the understanding of sustainable development at different levels of the economy. The results can be used by the authorities in implementing the policy of stimulating enterprises to obtain ESG certificates.

Дивидендная политика: фундаментальное значение, обзор и анализ состоятельности концепций, модель сглаживания дивидендов Lisitsa M.I.

The dividend policy matters for issuers of shares and their holders because of the phenomena generated during its implementation (financial, signal, behavioral and even emotional). However, despite the importance of the dividend policy as a strategy for rewarding shareholders, specialists do not have a single or at least fundamentally agreed point of view on the payment of dividends. In particular, the question of the impact of dividends on the welfare of shareholders is discussed in several concepts that suffer from flaws, and so significant that there is still no convincing theoretical answer to this question. When discussing additional issues of the dividend policy (how much of the net profit shareholders should receive as dividends for the expected period of time, how stable the amount of dividend payments should be, what should be the amount of dividend payments for the reporting period of time), there are great successes. At least, it succeeds: 1) to demonstrate the usefulness of a predictable dividend policy at a qualitative level; 2) to explain, even speculatively, the logic of accrual of dividends for the reporting period of time. Unfortunately, due to the lack of methodic, it is not possible to predict how much of the net profit shareholders should receive as dividends for the expected period of time. It is probably difficult to be satisfied with the explanation that dividends should maximize the welfare of shareholders, given the ambiguity in understanding the main issue (is it possible in principle). However, the empirical evidence is on the side of a stable strategy for rewarding shareholders, although there is no exhaustive statistical confirmation here. Finally, taking into account the totality of theoretical problems, financial practitioners are forced to rely on a seemingly flexible and natural approach – the payment of dividends on a residual basis. It is obvious that it does not have a systematic theoretical basis, but it is promising, viable and, most likely, will retain dominance until a more rational alternative is proposed.

Анализ современных тенденций развития бизнеса по производству биоматериалов в контексте экономики замкнутого цикла Rakhmanova K.R. , Kuznetcova A.P. , Molodkina N.R. , Sergienko O.I.

The problem of the growth of plastic waste remains the most pressing agenda in the world and in Russia. Waste management of traditional plastics, including disposal and recycling, faces the challenge of collecting remnants of recycled plastic. An alternative could be the use of biodegradable materials, including promising biocomposites obtained from renewable raw materials, reinforced with natural fibers. The subject of the study is the development trends in the business of biocomposites based on the mycelium of various types of fungi. The use of mycelium can be attributed to the movement of biomimicry, which is considered a promising approach for the creation and implementation of new technological solutions. The purpose of the work is to study and evaluate the international market for mycelium materials, the concept of creating new products, their application and positioning. A review of mycelium biocomposites' areas of use has been carried out, and the potential for their use as an environmentally friendly product on the market has been studied. A search and analysis of manufacturing companies was conducted, the main features of their business models and factors affecting business were identified, and sales models for mycelium products were described. For the first time, the concept of “three economies” of sustainable development was applied in relation to biocomposites, special attention was paid to the concept of a circular economy and the implementation of its principles in the context of manufacturing companies. The issue of biodegradability of products from mycelium was analyzed. The analysis carried out allows us to draw conclusions about the prospects of using mycelium as the basis of a biocomposite, the feasibility of creating commercial products from it, and about the most successful examples of building a business based on mycelium. According to research results, it can be argued that the use of mycelium and the creation of new business projects, taking into account the experience of international companies, is promising in Russia.

Влияние цифровизации на рынок труда: эффект фриланса Safiullin A.R., Vorzhetsova N.V.

The digital economy development based on new digital technologies is accompanied by the labor market and employment transformation. The growth of the freelance segment in the labor market and freelance marketplaces (freelance platforms) development as a new organizational form of labor market infrastructure are the result of the life activities total digitalization. The purpose of the work is to study freelance as a socio-economic category in the digital economy, to identify the reasons for the growth of freelance as a new non-traditional form of employment, including in the Russian economy, and to determine the role of freelance marketplaces (freelance platforms). In the digital economy, freelancers are self-employed workers who are not bound by the traditional employment sets (work schedule, work time, physical presence at the workplace), perform work (tasks) not in one company, but for different companies, coordinating with them the price, terms, stages, quality criteria, work results and so on. Freelance marketplaces are an effective organizational form of search by employers (companies) for employees with a certain set of professional competencies. The effect of freelance in digital economy is a compromise between an employer (business) who is interested in economic benefits due to employment flexibility, reduced labor costs and savings, and employees for whom such cooperation is conditioned by the autonomy (the ability to manage their own time), freedom of choice and choice of workplace. The Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated the development of the freelance segment in the Russian labor market. In addition to convenience, efficiency and employment mobility, another reason for the development of freelance in the Russian economy is regional disparities in wages, which freelance allows to overcome.

Анализ тенденций рынка и изучение спроса на функциональную безглютеновую продукцию Osipova E.R. , Mongush S.V. , Orlova O.Y. , Boitsova J.S.

In the last decade, there has been a significant increase in public demand for gluten-free products, and the market, in response to the increased interest in meeting the society's need for gluten-free products, has begun to actively offer a wide range of gluten-free products. The purpose of the work is to identify trends in the modern Russian market of functional gluten-free products in order to determine the prospects for the emergence and development of new companies. The object of the research is the market of gluten-free products. The authors chose gluten-free products of the FOODCODE brand as the subject of the study. The paper substantiates the need of the population for gluten-free products. In the process of analyzing trends in the development of the gluten-free products market, political, legal, economic, sociological, technological and environmental factors were considered. Based on these factors, the place of the FOODCODE brand in the wholesale and retail market of gluten-free products was determined. In order to study the demand for products and determine the core of the target audience, the authors conducted a survey, based on which the results and conclusions are presented in this paper: a description of the target audience, its characteristics and the main population groups interested in consuming gluten-free products is given, and an idea is formed about the core of the target audience. In conclusion, based on the results of the study, the authors briefly formulated conclusions about the trends in the development of the gluten-free products market and formed recommendations for further work on studying aspects of the gluten-free products market. According to the authors, the formulated conclusions on the work will find practical application in the field of building a development strategy and promoting a brand of gluten-free products.

Приоритеты устойчивого развития в аграрном секторе экономики Chernov V.A.

The agricultural sector integrates three key areas: animal husbandry, agriculture and chemical production of fertilizers, which determine the dynamism and quality of sustainable development of the agricultural sector and on which the quality of human life, health, longevity, and food security depend. Currently, the contradictions between the needs of the population for healthy food, the chemical industry, animal husbandry and its environmental consequences, the problems of increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and reducing oxygen by industrial production, the problems of climate change are becoming more acute. In this regard, there is a need for more rational approaches to the choice of priority directions for the development of the constituent productions of the agricultural industry in matters of financing. To justify the choice of financial priorities in the agricultural sector, studies of the environmental consequences of agro-industrial production are necessary. Therefore, this study comprehensively covers the areas of agricultural production and their financial regulation. Some researchers and representatives of the agrochemical business are trying to lay the main blame for the adverse environmental consequences in agriculture on animal husbandry, and propose a reduction in the number of cattle, motivating this with a humane attitude to animals, the need to reduce methane emissions into the atmosphere with the activation of plant protein production. This article examines how justified and justified such a point of view is in a comprehensive and systematic consideration of the relationship between animal husbandry, crop production, agrochemical business in the ratio of technologies of natural agriculture and chemical substitutes. The author gives organizational proposals in the production of organic fertilizers, recommendations in the field of financial policy, in the legislative sphere, contributing to solving the problems of sustainable development of the agricultural industry. The ways of reducing the methane content in the atmosphere are considered with the help of: natural "runoff", capturing methane emissions from the main sources, activating the release of oxygen by environmentally friendly plants grown with natural organic fertilizers – as the most important by-product of animal husbandry.

Управление процессом трансфера технологий при взаимодействии ВУЗов и бизнеса Elena Pavlova, Nguyen T.T.H.

In the twenty-first century, one of the main trends in the development of higher education in the world is the development of interaction between the university and business. This is an important mechanism for stimulating innovation and strengthening the interests of business, the university and society, with the main goal of stimulating the process of technology transfer, which determines the relevance of the work. In developing countries such as Viet Nam, the potential of university research results is still not being fully exploited. The purpose of this study is to analyze the features of the technology transfer process in Vietnam, identify existing problems and limitations, and explore the possibilities of using different approaches to the dissemination and commercialization of new technologies in the interaction between universities and business. The author proposes a technology transfer process that offers alternative options for implementing the technology transfer process, taking into account the specifics of universities in Vietnam and the factors for choosing the final option. The process takes into account the factors influencing the choice of technology transfer options, such as financial resources, organizational culture, incentives, and university policies. The logical sequence of technology transfer stages is described. Recommendations on decision making at each stage are presented, including the assessment of commercialization opportunities, the need for patent protection, and forms of interaction with business partners. Informal mechanisms of technology transfer are considered. It substantiates the need to create an intermediary structure that serves as a bridge to bridge the gap between universities and businesses, such as a technology transfer office. The recommendations proposed in the paper provide university managers with a basis for managing the process of technology transfer in the interaction between universities and businesses.

Оценка влияния технологичности региональной экономики на динамику ее развития Shirokova E.Yu. , Leonidova E.G.

Global technological trends in the development of the economy indicate the growth of digitalization and informatization of all its branches. With the advent of the coronavirus pandemic, the use of new technologies has made it possible to save jobs and minimize losses in mobility of movement for the population. Determining the contribution of technological development to economic growth is an urgent task due to the emergence of new technologies that affect logistics, the speed of information transfer and the ongoing structural transformations of socio-economic systems. The article reveals the influence of the level of technological development of the region's industries on its economy. Using the example of the Vologda Oblast, according to the data from 2007 to 2019, statistically significant indicators of technological development were identified that directly affect its per capita gross regional product. An assessment of the impact in a region with a zero share of extractive industries in the structure of the economy will reveal the level of influence of the technological effectiveness of manufacturing industries on GRP. A significant influence of two indicators was found: the share of public roads of regional or inter-municipal significance and the level of digitalization of the local telephone network in urban areas. Linear and nonlinear econometric models were constructed, as a result of comparison of which the latter was recognized as better and more accurately reflecting the dynamics of the initial statistical data. It is proved that the level of digitalization of the city telephone network has a stronger impact on the GRP per capita of the region, but due to the fact that this indicator has already reached 99.6% in the region, executive authorities should pay attention to the expansion of the road network for the economic growth of the Vologda region. The obtained results allowed us to prove the direct influence of the level of technological development of the region's industries on its economy.

Экономические методы оценки финансового состояния экспортеров в системе бюджетного управления Makarova O.N., Knyazev A.S. , Makarova Yu.N. , Martynenko O.V.

The normal functioning of any national political and legal system is possible only if it is in a state of security. According to the Federal Customs Service of Russia, the total amount of debt on payment of customs duties and penalties as of January 1, 2019 amounted to 49.2 billion rubles. As one of the hypotheses for the formation of debt, one can consider the impossibility of timely payment of customs duties as a result of a change, namely the deterioration in the financial condition of exporting enterprises. The analysis by indicators - the size of the property complex, the size of the authorized capital, the size of net assets characterizing the financial position of exporting enterprises revealed that there are not always direct links between the absolute indicators chosen as factors influencing the performance indicator. The risks of financial stability of the studied exporting enterprises are within the normative intervals, with the exception of the autonomy coefficient and the share of short-term debt in the total amount of liabilities. These calculations make it possible to classify risk groups of exporting enterprises according to the level of materiality.

Management

Формирование интеллектуальной среды взаимодействия бизнеса и государственных органов управления в реализации концепции ESG Izmaylov M.K. , Pupentsova S.V.

The relevance of the work is confirmed by the problems in the implementation of sustainable development goals that require special consolidation of the business sector and public financing strategies. The aim of the work is to develop proposals to improve the interaction of business and public authorities in the implementation of the ESG concept. The subject of the research – managerial relations arising in the process of forming the intellectual environment of interaction between business and public administration bodies in the implementation of the ESG concept. The object of the research - the intellectual environment of public-private partnership. Research methods: method of observation was used to summarize and describe the accumulated experience of domestic and foreign scientists and practitioners; method of generalization allowed to identify the lack of a unified approach to categorization and the need to create a favorable intellectual environment for effective interaction between business and public administration bodies in implementing the concept of ESG; method of abstraction was used to describe the structural and logical scheme of state-business interaction within the main components of the intellectual environment. The authors have conducted a comparative analysis of existing approaches and methods of innovation and investment support of sustainable development of territories. It has been marked those forms of interaction of business and politics in investment sphere, including realization of ESG concept, must have favorable intellectual environment, as it provides technological and innovation-oriented stable development of the state. The authors have developed proposals to improve the interaction between business and government agencies in the implementation of the ESG concept, characterized by a single digital platform with the possibility of attracting concessional financing for private investors and investors in public-private partnership projects.

Методика обучения нейронной сети для поддержки принятия решений в различных задачах менеджмента Shimokhin A.V. , Boltovsky S.N.

In the modern world, IT technologies have firmly taken root in the business processes of an organization, which allow the staff to be freed from routine operations, and the latest achievements of IT technology are even more intelligent. Basically, the development of intellectual support for business processes occurs due to the develop-ment of such technologies as, for example, more data, neural networks and others. Of particular interest are neural networks that have the ability to self-learn using the experience of experts in solving a particular problem in business, marketing, etc. The advantages of neural networks over classical linear and nonlinear methods of statistics are described. The range of management tasks is considered, in which neural networks can provide in-telligent support in matters of supplier selection, outsourcing, bankruptcy risk assessment. A technique for train-ing a neural network that performs intellectual support in solving management problems is proposed. Known models for assessing the risk of bankruptcy of various types of enterprises are given. Based on these models and the proposed methodology, a neural network was developed and trained, which, taking as input the values of working capital, assets, net profit, equity and revenue for a certain period, can predict the risk of bankruptcy. And classify the business as financially sound, unstable, or at high risk of bankruptcy. As a result of the creation and training of a neural network for intelligent support in predicting the risk of bankruptcy of an enterprise. The resulting neural network consists of 2 hidden layers, the first contains fifty neurons, the second ten. A graph of this network is provided. The hyperbolic tangent was used as the activation function

Управление концепцией бережливого производства в организации здравоохранения Vasilenok V.L., Negreeva V.V., Kochegarova T.S.

The relevance of the proposed article is aimed at forming a strategy in medical organizations to increase consumer satisfaction with medical services, reduce labor losses of medical personnel, and improve the quality of work of medical workers. All this presupposes the effective use of internal reserves in the healthcare organization. Patient flow management will improve business processes and working conditions. This strategy is based on the application of Lean Pproduction technology, the key principle of which is the continuity of the patient flow, where there are no queues and delays. The purpose of this approach is the uniform loading of medical personnel, information support, the optimal layout of the areas of the medical institution, and the minimization of various kinds of losses. The authors assessed the effectiveness of the concept of lean production in the healthcare organization. It is proposed to use a checklist to determine the level of maturity of the lean manufacturing management system in an organization based on a point-rating system. Based on the survey of staff involvement and patient satisfaction, it was revealed that the effectiveness of the implemented measures occurs in five parameters: patient satisfaction with the quality of medical services, expectation of the provision of services by patients, time spent by an employee on performing activities that do not add value, staff involvement, changes in working conditions. As a result, a coefficient was obtained, which, when compared with the result before the introduction of lean technologies, will show whether the measures used were effective, and if not, what parameters should be paid special attention to. The proposed algorithm can be applied in any polyclinic that wants to use lean manufacturing in its activities, which will ultimately increase productivity and labor safety and improve working conditions.

Editorial address:
191002, St. Petersburg, street. Lomonosova 9, office. 2132

Information 2007-2022, All rights reserved
Department of Internet Solutions NRU ITMO © 2013
Яндекс.Метрика