Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media
ISSN:2310-1172

September 2020 (published: 28.09.2020)

Number 3(42)

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Economics

Экономическая эффективность новой модели риелторского агентства Druzhinin A.E. , Alekseeva N.S.

The digitalization of modern life, change of business that has an impact on real estate brokerage Agency. The study of the impact of digitalization receives a lot of attention both at the state level, and at the level of business communities and individual enterprises, but in realtor activity there is a lack of research on this topic, which determines the relevance of this study. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the economic efficiency of the new model of a realtor Agency. The object of research is a real estate Agency, the subject of research is the economic efficiency of a new model of real estate Agency operation. The work uses methods of observation, data collection, and experiment. In this paper, a qualitative comparison of the characteristics of the realtor Agency's work on the classic and new models is made. The indicators of financial and economic activity of a conditional realtor Agency working using classical and new models are determined. The economic efficiency of the new model was evaluated using the indicators of return on sales, return on personnel and return on initial investment, and the results were compared with their values for the classical model. At the moment, the new model described in this paper is at the stage of formation in several Russian agencies, which causes the novelty of the presented research. Taking into account the obtained estimates of the economic efficiency of the new model, it is recommended for consideration in order to implement the possibility of real estate agencies when performing work on the sale of real estate. The results obtained can also be useful in areas where the business is highly dependent on sales managers.

Исследование инноваций в сфере экологической безопасности транспорта мегаполиса Anisimova A.I. , Lebedeva A.S.

The study examines innovative solutions in the field of environmental safety in transport in order to identify the best practices for solving environmental problems in domestic conditions. The object of the research is the transport system of the megalopolis, the subject is the environmental safety of urban land transport. The paper analyzes the consequences of the direct and indirect impact of the negative impact of the functioning of land transport on the environment, including animals, plants, soil, aquatic ecosystems, buildings and structures, and humans. In this case, the influence of not only the components of the exhaust gases of internal combustion en-gines is considered, but also vibration, excess of the permissible noise level, infrasound. In order to identify the best practices for solving environmental problems based on the application of innovations, an analysis of the dy-namics and degree of interconnection of indicators characterizing the effectiveness of environmental and innova-tion policies of countries was carried out on the basis of the Environmental Efficiency Index and the Global In-novation Index. The study revealed a global trend of deterioration of the environmental situation, as evidenced by a decrease in the index in some countries leading the rating. Correlation analysis of the data showed a mod-erate direct relationship between the Sustainability Index and the Global Innovation Index. The results of the study made it possible to identify countries in which the highest level of environmental safety is largely due to an innovative approach to solving existing environmental problems. These include Switzerland, France, Denmark. Based on the study of the practices of these countries in the field of ensuring the environmental safety of mega-lopolis transport, the most effective measures were identified, aimed at minimizing the negative consequences of the functioning of surface urban transport on the environment. The systematization and grouping of innovations was carried out in terms of the problems to be solved, the instrument of influence, the degree of prevalence, as well as an expert assessment of the applicability of certain solutions in domestic conditions As a result of system-atization, grouping and expert assessment, the most appropriate practices for implementation in domestic condi-tions were identified: a system of financial incentives, zoning based on environmental classification and the de-velopment of a system of special regulation of public transport using intelligent technologies. In addition, in some conditions, such areas as the creation of bicycle highways and hydrogen energy may be in demand. However, in the process of developing tools and strategic alternatives with regard to environmental safety in transport in the Russian Federation, one should take into account regional restrictions associated with mentality, climatic condi-tions, the level of infrastructure development, and the amount of available resources.

Анализ методов управления дебиторской задолженностью предприятия Alekseeva L.D. , Bombin A.Yu.

The article discusses the problem of determining effective methods for managing the receivables of an enterprise, the relevance of which is currently due to economic turbulence and the lack of certain methods for managing the liabilities of customers in organizations. The authors cite a grouping of methods and instruments for managing receivables and consider each of them in stages. Provisions are analyzed to determine the optimal type of credit policy to maintain the normal level of profitability of the enterprise and financial stability, and to assess the degree of reliability of potential counterparties by indicators of their activities. In addition, the article analyses the various ways of collecting receivables: legal, psychological, economic, and refinancing of receivables. Attention is focused on the last method of collecting receivables - refinancing, and its tools. Based on the analysis of receivables management, the authors propose a scheme consisting of a consistently structured algorithm for managing receivables: timely monitoring of receivables, determining customer lending policies, analyzing and compiling counterparty ratings, controlling the "aging" of debts, planned maturity dates, determining how to accelerate the calculations of counterparties. Based on the analysis of the methods and methods of receivables management, the authors assume that the effectiveness and efficiency in the management of receivables is achieved provided that the system of measures is used. The authors suggest that enterprises apply the recommendations outlined in this article in order to achieve the greatest effect of the counterparty liability management process, as well as pay attention to the use of an effective decision-making system, through which it is possible to optimize receivables and increase the overall level of profitability of the enterprise.

Оценка результативности интегрированных инновационных структур университета Vasetskaya N.O.

The object of research is integrated innovative scientific and educational structures of the university. The goal is to develop a system of indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of innovative integrated scientific and educational structures of the university. Methods: content analysis, comparison, systematization. In the context of technological, economic and cultural changes that have engulfed all social institutions of society in the last quarter of the XX century, the higher education system also needs to be modernized. Integrated innovation structures are considered as new forms of organizing the activities of universities as economic entities of higher education. Depending on the form of interaction between universities and the academic environment and enterprises in the real sector of the economy, there are the following structures: combined laboratories, basic departments, research and educational centers and research laboratories. The activities of these structures are based on the integration of science, education and industry. In this regard, in this article, based on the analysis of goals and expectations in the field of innovation from each of the considered structures in the framework of educational and research activities, a system of indicators for evaluating the performance of innovation units has been developed. It is shown that each integrated innovative scientific and educational structure corresponds to a certain set of indicators for evaluating its performance, while individual indicators may overlap. The proposed performance indicators include indicators that characterize both the scientific and educational activities of the division. Among the indicators of the effectiveness of integrated and innovative structures of the university selected publication activity, the funding of scientific research and development, a number of research projects, the level of capitalization of scientific research and/or innovation applied innovation and scientific development, the number of received patents and inventions, the average score for protection of final qualification works, the number of students, the degree of implementation of the results of final qualifying works in the business, the number of trained personnel. The developed system of performance indicators can be used as a «constructor» for the formation of its own integrated innovative scientific and educational structure.

Прогнозирование годовой выручки российских компаний крупного и среднего бизнеса отрасли торговля Vakhrushev I.A.

Revenue is the paramount parameter in financial forecasting. This indicator determines the dynamics of some financial parameters. The object of work is the future financial condition of Russian trade companies. The sub-ject of the research is the revenue of these companies. The aim of the work is to create a method for forecasting the revenue of trading companies, which will show the minimum possible error. The main research method is re-gression analysis. There are three main approaches to the formation of forecast values for the revenue of trading companies - the use of macroparameters, the previous value, and annual growth. The combined model of the existing revenue forecasting methodologies makes it possible to most accurately predict the future annual values of this indicator for companies in the trade in the Russian market. The correct approach to forecasting revenue should be considered not the one that accurately predicts the actual value of the parameter, but the one at which the forecast error is the minimum acceptable. We have at our disposal four historical periods - 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, 43 selected INNs for testing forecasting methods. The two periods for testing forecasts are 2017 and 2018. Forecasts will be built one year ahead, so we get 86 (43 INN * 2 test years) points for comparing forecast results. To test and compare the results, the MAPE forecast quality metric and graphical analysis will be used. The result of the study is the successful use of the hybrid method - the number of predicted revenues, the error of which is less than 10% and 20%, is higher among the selected ones. This suggests that 54% of the forecast points have an error of less than 20%.

Влияние внешних шоков на формирование взаимосвязей реального и финансового секторов хозяйства России Zueva O.A.

Most national economies are affected by external shocks of various natures: in accordance with the nature of their influence, positive and negative shocks, their sphere of origin is financial, trade, high-tech, etc. The impact of globalization on the nature of external shocks is reflected in a change in their frequency, level and strength of influence. During the global financial crisis of 2008–2011 and the European crisis, since 2010, the influence of financial shocks with the effects of contagion and transfer of crises between countries has intensified, then since 2014 with sanctions. Coronavirus dislocation in 2020 also affects negatively. An extreme form of negative shocks for Russia is external crises through various channels affecting the real and financial sectors. The research hypothesis is the elimination of the influence of external shocks on the Russian economy under the current economic policy will not yet ensure the creation of interconnections between the real and financial sectors. Scientific and practical domestic and foreign studies on the problem of the effects of instability and global competitiveness on the creation of relationships between the real and financial sectors of Russia do not have a final justification, which requires the use of a set of general scientific research methods, comparative, systemic, cybernetic and innovative approaches. During the period of the global financial and European crises, a cumulative external shock formed. The impact of external shocks through different channels negatively affected the real sector of Russia, the growth rate of GDP, investment, innovation activity, innovative potential and capital flows. The negative trend of previous events with the combination of the shock of 2014 due to sanctions and ineffective economic policies led to a fall in key indicators. At present, in an epidemiological shock, the package to stabilize the Central Bank of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation has not been implemented and is not fully operational. Of the three crisis scenarios, the likelihood of a "hard crisis" or a "prolonged shock." The impact of global instability is ambiguously assessed when creating relationships between the real and financial sectors of farms. The trend of positive external shocks, such as rising oil prices and improving financing conditions in the global financial markets, for Russia has transformed into negative external shocks under sanctions and coronavirus. Exogenous threats to Russia's security can be resolved by pursuing an active state economic policy on the basis of an economic model with the creation of interconnections between the real and financial sectors of the economy and the development of an innovative subsector, subject to the elimination of sanctions and coronavirus.

Способы адаптации инноваций в гидроэнергетике с учетом специфики стран на примере Республики Таджикистан Klochkova A.V., Shukurova M.A.

The article considers the process of adaptation of modern innovative directions of hydropower to specific economic conditions on the example of the Republic of Tajikistan. Hydropower, especially its innovative alternative directions, seem extremely promising today in the presence of certain environmental factors that affect the country's economy, and the most environmentally friendly. The interest in alternative hydropower is due to the economic crisis, the problem of resource depletion, and environmental problems, as well as trends towards deglobalization and the understanding that countries today need to rely on their own unique characteristics and competitive advantages. A striking example is the Republic of Tajikistan, where the development of small hydropower can have a significant positive impact on the country's economy. Describes specific characteristics of Tajikistan, such as the predominance of mountainous terrain and the abundance of water resources, mainly in the form of mountain rivers, and shows how these characteristics can be factors conducive to the construction in the Republic of Tajikistan small hydropower, and the solution by alternative hydropower the main problem – the problem of providing electricity to populations in remote and inaccessible rural areas. The article also discusses the history of hydropower development and the importance of this industry for the Russian economy. The advantages and disadvantages of hydropower and hydraulic structures are analyzed, the most significant accidents in this area and their impact on the environment are listed. An overview of the most common types of alternative hydroelectric power, which is becoming more and more popular: tidal, wave and small hydroelectric power plants, their pros and cons and their impact on the environment.

Методические аспекты оценки уровня развития межсекторного социального партнёрства в регионе Kopytova E.D. , Laptsova E.S.

In the context of growing external and internal challenges in Russia and the world, the role of horizontal management is growing, one of the mechanisms of which is cross-sectoral social partnership (CSP). The incentive for the implementation of CSPs is the progressive growth and complication of significant problems. In connection with the insufficient resources of the state for their solution, it becomes necessary to attract business structures and society. CSPs in European countries have received sufficient development since the middle of the 20th century. To date, a wealth of positive experience has been accumulated there, which confirms and proves its effectiveness for the development of socio-economic systems. In Russia, cross-sectoral partnership began to form in the 1990s, therefore in our country today this process is fraught with greater difficulties than in the West. One of the factors hindering its development today is the lack of a valid assessment methodology that would allow timely identification of shortcomings in the decision-making system. In this regard, the formation of methodological tools for a comprehensive assessment of CSPs is acquiring high scientific and practical significance for managing the socio-economic development of territories. The purpose of this article is to study and improve the methodological framework for assessing the level of development of cross-sectoral social partnership in the region. On the basis of a critical analysis of existing methodological approaches to assessing the level of development of cross-sectoral social partnership, we identified the advantages and disadvantages of the methods under consideration, found significant limitations in terms of their practical use at the present time, compiled a generalized list of tools identified by researchers when assessing the level of development of CSPs. The authors carried out a theoretical analysis of CSP tools within the framework of the system-synergetic approach, as a result of which the presented list of tools has been refined and updated taking into account the current trends in the socio-economic development of territories. The structured system of CSP tools presented in this article, which includes tools that are in demand in the information society, creates a methodological basis for assessing the level of development of CSPs that meets the objectives of public administration development, which will help increase the efficiency of CSP. The authors identified the main methodological provisions for the subsequent improvement of the methodology for assessing the level of development of CSPs. Obtaining the missing data on the state and prospects for the development of cross-sectoral social partnership tools, on the degree of contribution of CSP instruments to the development of territories, as well as on the quality of their functioning as management systems is planned to be carried out based on the use of expert knowledge technologies. The data of the expert survey will be used for the subsequent development of a methodology for assessing the level of CSP and adjusting regional governance for the development of territories. The scientific novelty of the study is to clarify the system of tools for assessing the level cross-sectoral partnerships development in the region and to improve an algorithm for this assessment.

Поддержка малого и среднего предпринимательства: субсидии из федерального бюджета в России и регионах Pinkovetskaia I.S.

In the course of the research, we respond to calls in the literature for a more systematic study of the important problem of supporting small and medium businesses in Russia on the basis of state subsidies. The purpose of the study is to evaluate indicators describing the subsidization of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from federal budget in Russia and its regions. At the same time, the tasks of determining the average values of indicators of state subsidies to SMEs, identifying regions with high and low values of indicators were solved. In the process, we used official statistics on the amount of budget subsidies issued to SMEs in all regions of Russia in 2018. In the course of the study, the following relative indicators were considered: the amount of subsidies per resident of the region and the amount of subsidies per SME. In the course of the work, these indicators were evaluated for all regions of the country; their average values and intervals of change, typical for most regions, were determined. The methodology discussed in the article and the developed tools (functions) can be used in further research on the issues of SME subsidies. The results of the study can be used by state and regional authorities in the formation and implementation of measures to improve the financing of the business sector. The developed models can be taken into account when determining the needs for assistance to entrepreneurs in regions where the business sector is not developed. The obtained data can be used in the process of training bachelors and masters in universities.

Экологический след современных социально-экономических систем: измерение и тенденции Sausheva O.S.

One of the most popular environmental indicators is the ecological footprint. Its main idea is to assess the sustainable development of a country or region by quantifying the resources consumed and waste generated and their relationship to the planet's ability to produce these resources and absorb waste. This article aims to study various approaches to measuring this indicator and identify the main trends in the development of modern socio-economic systems related to their environmental footprint. As a result of the analysis of a significant number of domestic and foreign publications, the strengths and weaknesses of the indicator of the ecological footprint and the carbon footprint determined by it were identified. The conclusion is made about the need to modernize the traditional approach to calculating the ecological footprint. As the most appropriate method for assessing the ecological footprint based on multi-regional analysis of input-output tables, which allows us to determine the volume of bio-intensity of the territory and the ecological footprint of consumption, taking into account the global supply chains. Analysis of current trends in the environmental sphere has led to the conclusion that the traditional fuel and raw materials model of development has been exhausted and it is necessary to search for new alternative energy sources.

Management. Environmental management

Проблемы экологии водных ресурсов и перспективы устойчивого развития Chernov V.A.

Solving environmental problems is extremely important for water resources. Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants is classified as hazard class IV and threatens to pollute water bodies and bring them into a state that is not suitable for household consumption and fishing. According to the research hypothesis, a more comprehensive approach to integration with the economy and consumer culture is required. The author has studied the existing problems of ecology, highlighted the most significant of them and requiring urgent solutions, which will require complex measures proposed in the article. The review of actions on environmental protection, technologies of waste water sludge utilization and individual production facilities in the field of ecology was con-ducted. The sphere of environmental production is considered as the most important object of strategic develop-ment of high-tech industries that can become a competitive industry on the world market with growing demand for environmental products. The author comes to the conclusion that technological means are insufficient to pre-serve natural resources and offers additional ways of addressing environmental problems by means of economy and increase of economic culture, achieved by improving financial literacy through joint participation NNGU im. Lobachevsky in the program of Moscow state University. University, the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Fed-eration, world Bank on improving economic culture. Recommendations are given for integrating the efforts of main production technologists, eco-logists and economists in reducing environmental pollution in the production process and reflecting the results of such efforts in integrated reporting. The main indicators of environmental performance, ecological and economic efficiency in building an eco-friendly economy are considered. Consump-tion culture is considered as one of the most important natural means of storing natural resources and achieving sustainable development. This tool helps to balance supply and demand, improve the quality of production, re-duce irrational labor costs to ensure human life in terms of useless consumption. Thus, the main components of sustainable development are integrated in the ways of solving the scientific problem.

Вклад экологического управления человеческими ресурсами в развитие системы экологического менеджмента: опыт российского предприятия Arzamasova G.S. , Cherepanov A.A.

Recent research in the field of environmental management raises new and important questions about the formation of human resource management models focused on the environmental strategies of the organization. The practice of using such models remains insufficiently studied despite the presence of a significant methodological basis. This is especially true for Russian organizations that have established environmental management systems (EMS). The purpose of the article is to identify environmental human resource management (HRM) practices and determine their impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of EMS in the conditions of Russian enterprises. The object of the study is Gazprom transgaz Tchaikovsky, one of the largest gas transmission companies of Gazprom PJSC. Research method: case studies using the AMO-model of environmental HRM, explaining its contribution to EMS from the point of view of three groups of practices: the development of environmental competencies, increasing the motivation and interest of employees in improving environmental performance and environmental involving of employees. The analysis identified and structured environmental HRM practices at Gazprom Transgaz Chaikovsky and also revealed a significant contribution of these practices to the success of the company's environmental activities. The article concludes that it is necessary to jointly use EMS and HRM practices in the environmental activities of Russian enterprises. The results and conclusions contribute to the development of environmental HRM methodology in terms of research tools in this area and can also be useful to specialists as a basis for diagnostics and assessment of processes in the field of environmental management and HRM.

Региональный экологический маркетинг: особенности и перспективы Yashalova N.N. , Krylova N.P. , Levashov E.N.

The article presents the analysis of a number of Russian and foreign studies concerning environmental marketing, concretizes its theoretical aspects and modern development trends, presents various approaches to the interpretation of environmental marketing, summarizes the history of its origin and stages of development. The study reveals the positive experience of the Vologda region in the implementation of environmental marketing, provides the author's interpretation of the content of the environmental marketing complex using the example of environmentally friendly food products, presents a generalized portrait of the consumer of "green" products of the region, identifies its geographical, psychographic, and behavioral features. The content of the brand of organic food has been determined. The information and empirical base of the study was the works of modern Russian and foreign authors, official materials, information of the regional websites on the issues under study.

Методика управления бизнес-процессами предприятия рамках системы менеджмента качества Martynenko O.V. , Kochegarova T.S., Kalendarov F. , Portnyagin O.B.

The article presents and describes the methodology for enterprise managing business processes, which is intended to be used including within the framework of an implemented or already existing quality management system. The relevance of the topic is due to the fact that in modern realities, the approach to enterprise management based on business processes is the most promising, since it allows you to achieve a significant advantage and significantly increase the efficiency of the entire enterprise by ensuring transparency, understanding and clear delineation of responsibility for each performer of business processes. Process management is primarily aimed at timely improvement and optimization of business processes in accordance with the company's policy and goals, including those aimed at improving the quality of products, which is characterized as a key factor in the success of any company. The proposed method allows you to formulate business processes of the enterprise, organize the work of selected processes, determine the scheme of their interaction, analyze the functioning of business processes based on the assessment of their effectiveness and efficiency, as well as improve the quality of the order of execution and results of processes. The methodology describes in detail all the necessary actions to ensure effective management of business processes. The above methodology is mainly aimed at creating conditions for effective control, evaluation and analysis of enterprise processes, which allows them to be adjusted and improved in a timely manner to ensure the production of quality products. In addition, this method takes into account the requirements of ISO 9000 series standards, and therefore can be used by domestic enterprises as a methodological basis for organizing process management. The main principle of the quality management system-continuous improvement – is laid down in the basis of the proposed methodology for managing business processes of the enterprise.

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