Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
зарегистрировано в Федеральной службе по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций
ISSN:2310-1172

March 2018 (published: 28.03.2018)

Number 1(32)

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Economics

Конкурентоспособность предпринимательской организации: создание инновационного ценностного предложения для рынка туристских услуг Kovalenko B.B. , Vagapova I.S.

The article presents the main stages and the most important results of applied development of a value proposition for a tourist organization. A business model was created on the basis of the template and methods of Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pinje. An important prerequisite for the development were the results of an analysis of the external environment of the activities of the tourist company. The main trends that give a general idea of the state of the market of tourist services are highlighted. Based on the forecast of growth in demand for inbound tourism, primarily from China, measures to create a value proposition are recommended. It is predicted that the implementation of the value proposition, in the conditions of the tourist services industry crisis, will help EWT to enter a new stage of development. The necessity of creative participation of all employees of the company in the process of developing the value proposition and conducting further changes in the business model was noted. An important condition for success is that the team must demonstrate unity and solidarity to enter new business development milestones. In this, it is necessary to take part in all employees and carry out the assigned tasks, experiencing a creative upsurge. In order to ensure the promotion of the new value proposition, the authors focus on the use of several tools: a value card, a customer profile, partnerships, sales channels. The consistent application of these tools will allow you to approach the optimal design of the business model of the company providing tourist services.

Сравнительный анализ структур национальных инновационных систем и их влияние на экономическое развитие (Свидетельства из стран БРИКС) Alnafrah Ibrahim, Al Naimi Kasem , Ahmad Marah

The BRICS countries are undergoing a decisive economic and social transition towards a knowledge-based economy. In this new economy, innovation activities are the cornerstone of economic dynamics and mechanisms of value creation. Therefore, the construction and development process of NISsis an essential element in the process of transformation towards a knowledge-based economy and strengthening the competitive position of BRICS countries globally. This study aims to analyze the factors’ structure of NISs in the BRICS countries, taking into account that these countries are undergoing a rapid and radical change in terms of national economic models. It also aims to analyze NIS impacts on the key economic and social development indicators. In order to achieve these objectives, we analyzed a set of indicators of NISs that reflect the main dimensions of these systems: innovation, institutional, infrastructural and educational dimensions. In addition to an economic and social development dimension in these countries during the period 2000–2015. Regarding the methodology, the panel data analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the dimensions of NISs and the economic performance in the BRICS countries combined. The results showed that there are structural differences among the BRICS countries in terms of NISs dimensions. Where the Russian innovation system is the best national innovation system among the BRICS countries, while the innovation system in India has the lowest performance. The analysis of the overall relationship between the dimensions of NISs and economic performance showed a significant positive relationship. While the partial analysis in each country showed clear structural differences among studied countries. Where there was generally a weakness in the innovation and institutional dimension in these countries.

Анализ бизнес-моделей на основе платформ Konopatov S.N., Saliyenko N.V.

To maintain competitiveness and sustainable development, modern companies need to innovate in technology products, services and business models. There are 2 types of business models: "pipeline" (traditional) and platform (ecosystems). Currently platforms are developing and penetrating into various branches of business and life. The paper compares traditional and ecosystem business models. There are 2 types of ecosystems: transactional and innovative. In the paper the competitive advantages of ecosystems by the example of Windows, Apple, Android, and others are examined. For example, a two-way Windows platform (because it connects developers and application users) is of little value in itself, but it gives access to a quantity of different programs (complementary products) and the mass of ecosystem users. On the other hand, Apple's platform uses the network effect: the increase in the number of users increases the value for developers, which generates the same effects in the opposite direction. The benefits of ecosystem participants are indicated. The platform holder dictates terms of the ecosystem and receives monopoly profits. There is also an ecosystem effect when the value of the platform grows without the efforts of the platform holder. At the same time, the platform business is estimated at times higher than the traditional one. For application producers, the ecosystem provides access to a large market. Clients of the ecosystem can save time and effort, users receive a large number of necessary functions. At the same time, platform holders do not monopolize the production of applications, otherwise competition will fail. As a consequence, there will be a decline in application quality and price increase, and most importantly - the value of the ecosystem for its members will decrease. Considering technological progress tendency of ecosystem collisions is up-to-date. In conclusion, the perspectives of firms' survival in the context of the spread of ecosystems are considered, as there are a lot of competitive "pipeline" firms in the world at the moment.

Занятость и заработная плата населения как показатели социального качества жизни Kublanov A.M. , Borshcheva A.V. , Santalova M.S.

This article discusses the indicators of social quality of life of the population: employment, unemployment, arrears of wages, wage indexation, efficiency of the state employment service. Overdue arrears of wages, no indexation, employment and unemployment are determined by the factors of inefficient management of social quality of life of the population in the state. In this paper, we present the replacement of the term «labour force» with the term «working man», the analysis of indicators of employment, unemployment, wage dynamics, wage indexation, needs in the working man, the conclusion is not quite effective work of the state employment service. It is proposed to consider wage arrears as a «maintenance hole» or gap in the economic relations of the employer, which, increasing speed, or maintaining existing, unable to cope with the management of cash flows and enters in the so-called «hole», in this case, the exploitative, as trying to save the economic situation at the expense of working people on it. State administrative activities are presented as the formation, coordination, regulation and control of social quality of life.

Анализ состояния и тенденций результативности функционирования инновационной среды Российской Федерации в области научно-технической деятельности Melnichenko A.M.

Topicality of the article consists in the fact that the development of an objectively informed and effective management decisions for the development of complex economic entities that make up the innovation environment of the state involves the examination of current practice in the field situation, identify its causes and determine trends. This approach allows us to develop the scientifically-informed decisions on changing the composition and direction of the factors behind the actual situation, based on the allocation of those can be considered as key. A key factor of active development of the innovative environment of the Russian Federation is the performance of scientific and technological activities. Indicators of organizational capacity to achieve scientific and technical results are the number of organizations performing research and development and the number of employed in this process, staff is organized by researchers and technical, ancillary and other workers. As the characteristics of the economic potential of scientific and technological activities the article discusses the increased domestic expenditure on research and development, and the parameters of the potential are recognized as indicators of patent activity and the number of developed advanced production technologies. A study of the impact of scientific and technological activities with the use of official national statistics data allows us to formulate the most topical at the present stage the direction of its increase.

Состояние и перспективы развития венчурного финансирования в РФ и в Санкт-Петербурге Prihodko R.V.

Article purpose – to give the review of a condition of venture business in our country and to develop specific proposals on activization of venture investment. The methods used for achievement of a goal: analysis, induction. In article evolution of venture business in the world and in Russia is traced. Specifics of venture financing and a role which it plays in ensuring economic growth of the country and technological development of the firms making the main productive force of economy are shown. Classification of stages of venture financing is given and it is shown at what stages of this process the state participates in joint financing of perspective projects more actively. In article, in addition, special attention is paid to such forms of financing and support of innovative business as business incubators. In particular, their advantages and shortcomings to investors are presented. The statistics illustrating development of corporate venture funds in our country is given and the reasons for which their distribution at us is much more modest on scales, than in foreign countries are considered. Besides, the author shows the main directions of venture investment taking place in our country, discloses difficulties which venture financing in the Russian Federation meets. In conclusion, offers on activization of attraction of private venture investments into the Russian industry are formulated and the example of formation of structures of venture financing at the ITMO St. Petersburg University is given.

Человеческий капитал в цифровую эпоху Shestakova I.G.

Spatial and economic transformations caused by the invasion of intellectual systems in our lives have exacerbated the problem of labor market shrinkage. The article makes some assumptions about what humanity expects in the near future with respect to the transformation of the labor market. Using the historical-empirical approach, the author comes to the conclusion about the possibility of an optimistic scenario of harmonization of machine-human relations in the labor market. Potentially, this can be a natural (spontaneous) request specifically for the work of a person in some professions or an artificial (legislative, adopted due to external management) decision to involve human labor, as well as various compensation mechanisms. As an alternative to unemployment and the need to pay citizens benefits can be getting jobs for a salary commensurate with basic income. However, the current situation is radically different from everything that was before. First, in the past, the pace of progress has allowed the labor market to adapt relatively gently to new technologies. The current speed of progress leads to multiple changes in social and economic life in the eyes of one generation. Secondly, for the first time the cars encroached on the main thing that determines a person - on his mind. Man cannot compete with the intellectual power of modern machines, capable of analyzing and making decisions much faster. Proceeding from this, the development curve of the situation is seen pessimistically. Obviously, the situation depends on the answer to the question of what artificial intelligence can do, or rather, what it is incapable of. Can robots solve any problems? And if we assume that they cannot do something, then, consequently, it is there that the possible segment of jobs for a person is viewed. The author tries to guess what competencies people should have who want to find a workplace in the digital civilization and show the need for the preparation of humanity to change the socio-economic paradigm of consciousness.

Стратегия накопления сбережений на основе депозитов в условиях смягчения кредитно-денежной политики Shapiro V.Ya., Shapiro N.A.

The research presented in the article was initiated by changes in the monetary policy of the Central Bank of Russia. In the past, 2017 the period of high deposit rates established in the banking system of the Russian Federation in connection with the introduction of economic sanctions in 2014 was completed. The monetary policy of the Central Bank (CB), conducted at this time, is characterized by a decrease in the key rate, which means that the deposit rates of deposits and bond yields will decline. Actual in these conditions are the answers to the questions: what in these conditions can expect individuals or private investors, most of whom prefer to accumulate savings in deposits, and what can their strategy be. The methods of probability-statistical analysis, matrix analysis and Markov chains are used in the work. Empirical data are taken from the published data of the state corporation «Deposit Insurance Agency» (DIA). The results of the study are alternative scenarios and the corresponding types of strategies for the implementation of savings. The strategy of each scenario is visualized by graphic models. The strategy of each of the scenarios is visualized by graphic models. The models show the accumulative possibilities of using cash deposits in accordance with the strategies of the three scenarios (active, conservative and cyclical) in the current climate of monetary policy easing of the Central Bank of Russia. Merits and demerits of the revealed strategy are considered. The conclusion to which the authors came suggests that for a private investor preferring to place funds in deposits in the conditions of a possible further lowering of the Central Bank's key rate, the most effective strategy will be cyclical investment.

Особенности коммерческой и инновационной деятельности в оптовой торговле Lesnikova E.P. , Maksimova T.I. , Nechaeva S.N. , Trunova E.B.

The article deals with the development stages of wholesale trade and the instruments of its regulation, the stage of maturity of the wholesale trade subsector is determined in modern reality; factors that contribute to increasing the efficiency of business processes in the subsector of wholesale trade under conditions of innovation and uncertainty, key prerequisites for the selection and implementation of the strategy for innovative development of a wholesale trading enterprise are. Based on the analysis of the current state of trade in the Russian Federation, it is concluded that opportunities have been created for its further growth and development provided that there is sufficient innovation and investment attractiveness: the consolidation of the industry, the growing competition, the increase in trade and warehouse space, the development of remote channels. Realization of these opportunities will lead to significant effects for the domestic economy and customers: the growth of the efficiency of the trade sector and its suppliers, the growth of investments and innovations, the revenues of trade enterprises, the growth of tax revenues, the growth of geographic and price accessibility of goods, the expansion of the range and quality of service in trade, share of counterfeit and falsified products. In the work, factors that negatively influence the development of innovations and factors that inhibit the innovative activity of trading enterprises are identified. It is determined that in Russia there is a specific innovative system that is characterized by a complex of structural and institutional problems.

Эконометрическая модель кредитного риска на примере коммерческих банков Кыргызской Республики Bektenova D.Ch. , Arykov R.I.

Analysis and assessment of the quality of the credit portfolio (credit risk) of the banking sector is one of the main and important elements of macroprudential analysis and banking regulation. An analysis of the interrelation-ships between key macroeconomic factors and the quality of the banking sector's loan portfolio facilitates a better understanding of cross-sectoral dependencies in the economy, as well as the identification of strengths and weaknesses in the financial sector. The object of the study in this work is the commercial banks of the Kyrgyz Republic. The subject of the study is the systemic and individual credit risks of commercial banks of the Kyrgyz Republic, their factors and consequences of implementation. The main purpose of this work is to develop a model of credit risk by the example of commercial banks of the Kyrgyz Republic. To fulfill this goal, the following task is set: to identify the interrelations between the real sector of the economy and the banking sector and their quantitative assessment.

Инновации как стержень капиталистического развития Panzabekova A.Zh. , Nyurlykhyna G.B.

In this article, the authors consider the fundamental theoretical aspects of the influence of innovations on the economic development of capitalist society. In addition, certain provisions of alternative theories of capitalist development are considered. The main hypothesis of the article is the assertion about the primacy of innovations in the development of capitalist society. As research methods used: scientific analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, the method of historical and logical unity. The authors analyze various approaches to innovation in economic activity in the context of the historical development of the discourse around innovation. A short introduction to the history of innovation is given. The main features of innovative activity under the capitalist social system, the role in the process of economic development and long-term economic cycles are considered. The concept of creative destruction and his role in changing the cycles of economic development are considered. The basic paradigms of applying modern innovative approaches are presented. The review of the basic theories connected with a social component of innovations is given. The authors consider the theory of the creative class as a source of ideas for innovation. The main types of economic innovations, the current situation in the world and the tendencies of dialogue around innovations in the context of economic development are analyzed. Discussions are made about the existing policy related to innovative economic development. The issues of distribution of opportunities for innovative development in different countries are being studied. In conclusion, the idea is that innovation is a kind of modern information competition aimed at maximizing profits with a side effect in the form of qualitative changes. The results of the article can be used for further theoretical study of issues related to the information economy and potential methods of searching for new ways of economic development.

Малое предпринимательство как фактор развития инновационной экономики Vasilenok V.L., Brazevich D.S. , Safronova Zh.S.

The scientific analysis of a transitional stage of economy of Russia on the innovative way of development which is the most difficult call for the modern state is provided in article. The pressing need in theoretical and practical judgment of opportunities of the modern market caused by search of effective remedies of management of innovative processes is shown. The special role of the small and average business designed to provide the competitive environment in the conditions of innovative activity is revealed. It is proved that the innovative environment for the enterprises of small and medium business which are capable to react most effectively and quickly to demand of consumers is most organic, to influence it and to develop taking into account regional development. It is revealed that the state measures of support of small business aren't rather effective and, at the moment, aren't capable to solve problems of small business in use of new innovative technologies of economic development, thereby reducing possibilities of transition of national economy by an innovative way of development. The question as small business is analyzed becomes the defining factor of development of the innovative sector of the country. Concepts of innovative activity of small enterprise are given. The question of formation and development of small business which in recent years became the most important sector of economy is analysed, and exerts considerable impact on a social and economic situation in Russia. The unevenness of distribution of small business in the country on regions is shown, the existing risks of small business are designated. Advantages of small business before the large state enterprises in innovative development of Russia are proved. The factors influencing efficiency of activity of small enterprises are defined and proved. The analysis of historical development of the small innovative enterprises in St. Petersburg is carried out, the statistical analysis of data is provided.

Бизнес-консалтинг как вид интеллектуального предпринимательства и современные направления его развития Mrochkovsky N.S.

Consulting in the business sphere is gradually increasing in scope and variety of directions. The article substantiates that the development of business consulting is due to the development of the vertical division of labor. Business consulting is a form of intellectual entrepreneurship that functions as an infrastructure for business activities. Business consulting accumulates practical and theoretical knowledge and acts as a link between science and business practice, transferring knowledge and offering solutions to problems of enterprises based on developed consulting technologies. The results of a survey of business consultants showing the problems of business consulting are presented. Due to the importance of business consulting as a management infrastructure, it is justified to expand the training of business consultants in the higher education system. The question is raised about the need to develop new types of consulting.

Значение модели экономического капитала в оценке капитала банка Posnaya E.А. , Kolesnikov A.M.

The article reveals the content of economic capital concept, explores approaches to its estimation, assesses the implementation of economic capital concept in the national banking system, identifies problems, possible directions for development and convergence of the Russian approach with international requirements. As a result, the need to apply the model of economic capital in estimation of bank capital is substantiated. The change in trends in bank regulation (the actions of supervisors in matters of capital adequacy acquired a risk-oriented nature that takes into account the risks assumed by each bank and the quality of their management) led to the emergence in 2004 of the concept of economic capital reflected in the document "International Convergence of Capital Measurement and standards of capital: new approaches"(Basel II). According to this concept, commercial banks must have sufficient capital to cover not only credit, market, but also operational risks. Thus, economic capital takes into account all the risk circumstances that a bank institution may have. The need to apply the method of economic capital in bank capital estimation is justified and significant.

Management. Environmental management

Международные тенденции и возможности развития малых предприятий в полимерной промышленности Vetrova E.N., Kireenkova A.

The report focuses on current state, trends and problems of development of polymer industry with emphasis to small business segment. The audience will be acquainted with analyse and base trends of international and Russian market of petroleum and processing industry as well as with polymer industry market. The main interest to this subject is based on obvious opportunities of growth and development of the global polymer industry. Small enterprises considered as the main object of investment on world market. The significant raw material potential of Russia compared with the current low production indicators as opportunity to increase the share of the international polymer production. The progressive growth of global polymer production and the outstripping growth of demand on the domestic Russian market. All this reasons became the huge field for analysis and synthesis of all factors and for research of trend and opportunities on it. The main purpose of research is to provide economic and strategic growth of Russian polymer industry on the world market. And also to find the ways and directions for the development of small enterprises on the domestic and international markets through the use of the hydrocarbon production potential in the Russian Federation.

Оценка перспектив и эффективности внедрения системы экологического менеджмента с позиции комплексного анализа потенциала предприятия Gun'kova A.G. , Kholopov Y.A. , Purygin P.P.

The ecological component is becoming increasingly important in economic relations, in international competitiveness and creating a favorable image of the companies-producers. The integration of Russia into the Eurasian economic space contribute to the dissemination and implementation of requirements of international environmental management standards and certification of enterprises on ISO 14001.However, the assessment of prospects and the effectiveness of the environmental management system are still under development. The authors, hilight the causes of positive and negative attitudes to the implemention of the environmental certification provide analysis, based on the literature and statistic recourses. They proposed to assess the environmental action success in combination with other options based on the analysis of enterprise potential as the decrease of some options that can lead to the growth of others. This situation provides sustainable ecological and economic organization development.

Методы выбора финансовой стратегии для промышленного предприятия Minchenko L.V., Badaeva N.N.

In the current market relations and constant changes affecting the financial environment, the company very effectively plans its activities for the long term. At the same time, this is necessary, which allows us to respond in a timely manner to our changes. In this case, the financial strategy of the enterprise has a special significance. With the appearance of new commercial offers and the transition to a new stage of business development, the use of new methods of developing a financial strategy that more broadly and accurately contributes to the achievement of the company's goals. The purpose of this article is to study methodological approaches to the selection of a financial strategy for the development of industrial companies. The subject of the research are methods related to the choice of the financial strategy of enterprises. Business development requires an investment process, which is based on the cash flow management model. The financial strategy is to provide access to financial resources that allow to have the required level of liquidity and profitability. The efficiency criterion of such strategies can be the growth of the company's value. Therefore, the authors proposed and substantiated the cost approach to the selection of the company's financial development strategy. For the approbation, the calculation of the cost was carried out by 8 methods and the choice of the most acceptable ones was made. In addition, it is established that the application of one approach is inefficient for the enterprise, since the specificity of the company's activities is not taken into account. Therefore, the use of an additional system approach in assessing the cost to achieve the next level of financial efficiency.

Исследование актуальных стратегий антикризисного управления в отечественном бизнесе Negreeva V.V., Aleksashkina E.I., Seleznev I.A.

The relevance of the study is due to the development of the current situation with an increase in number of bankruptcies of domestic enterprises and the need for an effective method of anti-crisis strategic planning in an unstable business environment. The aim of the study is to research modern scientific and methodological approaches to the formation of anti-crisis strategies in business. The objectives of the study are: substantiation of the need for integration the strategic anti-crisis planning system, description of the key parameters of effective strategic anti-crisis planning, description of the specifics in the strategy development process in crisis conditions, presentation of development alternatives in crisis conditions, description of modern anti-crisis planning strategies in Russian practice, classification of crisis management tools and KPI system adaptation in the process of strategic in anti-crisis planning. In the course of the research, the current dynamics of bankruptcy growth in the domestic business were assessed in the period from 2007 to 2016, a conclusion was made about the advisability of introducing anti-crisis planning tools into a strategic analysis, three topical strategies and seven groups of tools for strategic anti-crisis planning were classified; the Balanced Scorecard concept has perspectives to improve in crisis management strategies. The practical significance of the results is connected with the possibility of their adaptation to the strategic planning of Russian enterprises in order to minimize the risks of manifestation of crisis situations.

Создание оптимальной системы «бережливого производства» в деятельность ресурсоснабжающей организации ГУП «Водоканал Санкт-Петербурга» Treiman M.G. , Nikishova A.O.

The article presents the main provisions regarding the possibility of using «lean manufacturing» systems in the activities of resource-supplying enterprises. In particular, the authors proposed the use of the concepts of «5S» and «Kaidzen», which are aimed at increasing the productivity of the enterprise due to the regularity in the workplace and the most complete use of the resources of the enterprise. The system of «lean manufacturing» will allow the company to constantly improve itself and change the attitude of staff to the resource base of the company. The implementation of these principles will improve the financial performance of the company, so the methods «5S» and «Kaidzen» will reduce the costs of branches «drainage» and «Transport and logistics» by an average of 8%.

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