The transition to market relations in Russia has had a huge impact on the housing sector both in terms of its material component and housing relations. The number of problems accumulated in this area is enormous, their solution requires coordinated actions of all participants in housing relations. To date, most of the scientific papers in this field of research offer ways to solve problems of housing financing and ensuring itsaffordability to population, while ignoring the activities of state structures and there is no evaluation of the effectiveness of their housing policy. The objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of the housing policy of the Russian Federation, recorded in regulatory legal documents, in terms of the attainability of its targets. The authors studied the goals and objectives of housing policy in Russia, as well as its strategic directions of development. The urgency of increasing the effectiveness of interaction between housing policy bodies at various levels and a comprehensive assessment of the housing stock in the regions of the country is substantiated. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation of housing policy is given, conclusions are drawn regarding the attainability of the goals and the degree of feasibility of the housing policy objectives, enshrined in the Concept of the country's long-term social and economic development. The results of the study can be used by regional and federal authorities.
The article proposes an innovative model of personnel incentives with the use of options. The use of the option model in companies whose main product is the result of intellectual labor is justified. The basic models of personnel incentives through participation in the capital and distribution of the company's profits are considered, as well as the peculiarities of such incentives in organizations with various forms of ownership, namely public, non-public joint-stock companies and limited liability companies. The regulatory and legal framework for the use of the option model has been completed. The concept of the option is given according to the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and the instructions of the Bank of Russia. Legally significant actions of the founders are listed, for the commission of which one hundred percent of votes are required. The recommended size of the fund of shares allocated to incentive payments is substantiated. The mechanism of punitive measures with the use of options is proposed. An approximate calculation of this model for an average enterprise size of 100 units has been made. The criteria for the applicability of the option model are indicated and the recommended lines of business of the company are determined, under which the present model can be used. The main advantages of the option model are given, in comparison with the traditional incentive methods for personnel. The strategic importance of the option model is indicated.
The study is aimed at identifying the relationship between the synthetic credit rating and the sustainability of the enterprise as a dynamic system. The analysis and evaluation of the synthetic credit rating, based on the interest coverage ratio (ICR), is conducted. The paper examines the financial statements of 7 Russian issuers from two industries - metallurgical and oil for the period 2006-2014. The article analyzes and establishes new universal indicators of the degree of vulnerability of companies assessing sustainability and allowing them to improve their synthetic credit rating. Using the MATLAB software package, the dependency curves of the indicators were constructed, which are the determinants of the interest coverage ratio, such as operating profit (EBIT) and interest on loans and borrowings (In). Based on the correlation analysis, three scenarios for the behavior of EBIT with respect to In were determined, which determine the average ICR values: 1) a monotonically increasing straight line; 2) a monotonically decreasing line; 3) ring variability. It is concluded that there is a relationship between the stability of the company and the agreed-upon change in time of EBIT (ω2) and In (ω1). From this point of view, the variability of the ICR indicator over time can serve as an indicator of the forecasting of the synthetic credit rating. As a result of the research, the maximum rating is forecasted by PJSC "Lukoil", which from the point of view of dynamic systems reflects the implementation of a stable limit cycle. Positive averaged ICRs were obtained for Rosneft, Novatek, Severstal, and NLMK, which also indicates a high credit rating. Finally, for TMK, MMC Norilsk Nickel there are projected a low credit rating.
In conditions of limited resources, political and economic risks, the actual problem is the implementation of the economic model, which can be investment and innovation, the processes of modernization and structural adjustment of the economy. This model includes a combination of public and private property, the combination of market mechanism and state regulation, the combination of competition and monopoly in different combinations affects, on the one hand the formation of money capital, productive and innovative capital. One of the factors of development are knowledge, which are universal in nature and applicable to the formation of public policy to the solution of problems of specific territories, to solve production problems, to the solution of any tasks related to welfare and development. Currently, the reproductive process is, first and foremost, the innovative movement of capital, for change of outdated technologies, obsolete equipment, etc. the Subject of this research are the features of expanded accumulation and reproduction of capital based on innovation. Objective: to develop recommendations for innovative reproduction of capital, based on the evolution of economic views. Research methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the comparison of the economic Outlook on the reproduction and accumulation of capital. Used scientific methods of research. In this regard, the article considers the evolution of economic views on the reproduction of capital, which proves the need to consider the capital as a knowledge-intensive process, as the potential for economic growth as a generating factor in the transformation of the economy. The author provides a lot of economic approaches to the question of accumulation and reproduction of capital, determined the theoretical basis of modern economic development.
The peculiarity of the current stage of development of the world economy is to increase the role of industry in the economic structure. Industry in Russia is going through a difficult period in its development. This is due to the negative impact on the economy of the whole range of macroeconomic factors. On the one hand, there is a deterioration of the situation of enterprises, and on the other hand, there are new opportunities for expansion. Scientific-applied challenge is to define adequate and effective model of development of Russian Industry. The existing development opportunities are underutilized. The main problem is the low competitiveness of Russian goods and services and ineffective mechanisms for promoting. This is due to the presence of resource constraints in companies and a low level of innovation activity. We believe that improving the competitiveness of modern companies is directly related to its effective innovation. Objective. To develop a model of innovative development of industrial enterprises in the conditions of resource constraints. Methodology of research. To construct the model of innovative development in the conditions of resource constraints is proposed to use: state regulation of the economy and entrepreneurship theory; cluster methodology and others. Using a set of theories and models allows us to construct a model of innovative development of industrial enterprises in the conditions of resource constraints with a high degree of objectivity. This model is unique in terms of methodology and the use of a universal position.
Actuality of the article is the fact that an effective innovative environment of economic entities is a key factor in the formation and development of the new economy – economic structure, whose primary resource is the information on modern achievements of science and technology. Rationalization of the national innovation environment involves scientific analysis of its status, the main criterion of which is the ability to create results to ensure the feasibility of their application (production) application. Propose a methodological approach to the development of analytical tools for the study of the effectiveness of the national innovation environment, based on application of objective, relevant and available information (official statistics), scientific methods of treatment and objectively reasonable methods of interpretation of the results.
The concept and essence of algorithmic trade in the international currency market are considered, varieties of trading systems (trading robots) are studied, the classification of automated trading systems (ATS) is carried out, advantages and disadvantages of using automatic telephone exchanges in real currency trading are identified and evaluated. For the selection of units of the reference group, independent ratings of manufacturers of automated trading systems were studied, an analysis of the work of automated trading systems operating according to the same strategies was made, but from different price categories. For each automated trading system (a total of 12 automatic tradingsystemss were selected), the main performance indicators used by many brokerage firms and development companies were selected to analyze the work of trading robots. Based on the received performance indicators of the automatic telephone exchange, the overall performance index of the automatic telephone exchange was calculated. Calculation of this indicator was carried out on the basis of normalization of unipolar partial indicators with the use of the additive model. Ranks of automatic telephone exchange are built on the basis of efficiency and price. The connection between these ranks was estimated using the Spearman correlation coefficient and its significance. Conclusions were made about the correlation of price indicators and the effectiveness of trading systems chosen for the study. It should be noted that the calculation of the overall performance index is of interest for determining the competitiveness of individual automatic telephone exchanges, which, in turn, can be used by both ordinary consumers of the trading robot market and by development companies to determine the competitiveness of their developments and developments of other market players.
Today, the introduction of systems under the auspices of ISO standards, including 9000 and 14 000, is becoming more and more urgent. These standards are necessary for organizing effective management of production processes at the enterprise, both in terms of production and technical and economic indicators, and in the part of creating a risk management system. Structured risk management is the identification of risks, their analysis and evaluation, as well as their minimization or elimination. The purpose of this activity is to improve the financial performance of the enterprise as a whole and reduce the loss of resources, cash, etc. In the article, the authors outline in detail all the components of risk activities - from types and risk factors to measures for their elimination, as well as proposals have been tested on the data of the resource-supplying enterprise of PJSC "TGC-1". The article proposes a technique for calculating the production capacity of an enterprise for various types of unplanned situations for an energy company and a calculation was made using the proposed methodology. Risk management is the most important direction in the activities of enterprises, organizations and companies of any kind, both in their production and technical and environmental aspects, and in assessing their impact on the financial component of the activity.
The article is devoted to the problem of low unemployment in the conditions of the recession of the Russian economy. The analysis of points of view on the causes of this discrepancy was carried out. The general conclusion is the flexibility of the Russian labor market, high elasticity of wages for unemployment. A number of authors perceive the property of reducing wages as a positive characteristic, preserving employment and growth potential. In fact, unemployment takes the form of unpaid labor. The article contains figures that characterize the impoverishment of the population, underpayments to workers, part-time work without compensation. Employment becomes fake, does not ensure the reproduction of labor. The increase in the number of diseases of the able-bodied population in these years is shown in comparison with the declining unemployment. The article presents views on ways to reduce unemployment. The key way is to reduce wages.But the main methodological error of these conclusions is the autonomous examination of the labor market, which leads to a false choice of tools. The labor market is connected with the market of goods through the consumed part of the disposable income of workers. A reduction in wages and a corresponding reduction in income mean a reduction in demand in the market of goods, which in turn reduces the demand for labor and causes unemployment. The article proposes measures of state policy on expansion of aggregate demand, reduction of savings leaks and activation of trade unions in order to increase the prosperity of the employed population and push economic growth.
In the work the authors propose the methods for forecasting mutual variations in incremental results (innovation potential and GDP) and factors (five elements of innovation potential), taking into account their statistical convergence. It has novelty and relevance, because it has no analogues and reproduces a new complex approach in the applied use of the multifactorial linear regression model. The novelty of the technique under consideration is the representation and the method of solving the direct and inverse problems of linear regression. A direct task for a certain increment in the selected component of the innovative potential makes it possible to measure the projected increment in the level of innovation potential and GDP, as well as an increase in other elements of the innovative potential that are statistically interrelated with it. The application of this methodology proves the structuredness and visibility of the decision management process based on the quantitative model of multifactorial linear regression, imparts objectivity and validity for its use in regulating the national economy of Russia with the aim of increasing the level of innovation potential and its elements, and securing significant rates of economic growth. The considered methodology informs about the presence of divergence of real and financial sectors, scientific and high-tech subsectors on the basis of the proposed hypothesis and the need for convergence.
The article seeks to reveal promising approaches to sustainable development of rural territories on the back of state-of-the-art achievements of the scitech revolution. Social and economic territorial systems make the subject of research. The article focuses on recessionary state of rural territories in the Russian Federation that evolved due to destruction of their economic and social potential. The article views the contemporary state of rural territories, the fundamental flaws in the existing program of their development, and substantiates the need for allocation of settlement areas that are free of agricultural production, offer high cultural and natural potential. Such areas would be proper for development of individual housing construction, recreation and farming businesses that manufacture high-value products for tourists and shape an attractive rural landscape. Large-scale agricultural production shall be developed in well-suited environmentally sustainable areas. If considered through the prism of the occurring scitech revolution, the problem of rural territories reveals a new development line that contributes to reviving the harmony between the Human Being and the Nature, and is effective, for their economy and community, and generally for the state. It opens opportunities for offsite or out-of-office employment for a wide array of professions not directly engaged in production. The exchange of tasks and results is set to be accomplished via the information environment amidst quick rotation of products and technologies. This boosts the significance of rural areas as the most convenient and eco-friendly environment for work and habitation of people in the upcoming economy. Integrated solution to the problem of developing rural territories requires a foresight project addressing the future of rural settlements and towns of Russia, elaboration of the road map, an action plan and strict control of their implementation.
In modern conditions, the formation of a circular economy is becoming an urgent task for our country, since its solution will reduce the tension of the environmental problem through the reduction of landfills and dumps, the economic effect will also be obtained through the use of resource-saving technologies and the social effect of creating new jobs in waste management . However, the waste management system is only being created, so it is important to determine the basic guidelines for its development. In this regard, it seems relevant to study the mechanism for monitoring the effectiveness of recycling, since management effectiveness is due to the availability, completeness and reliability of data on the state of the socio-economic system, as well as the timeliness of obtaining these data. The purpose of this study is to find out what the recycling efficiency monitoring system is, what tasks are for it, and what indicators should be included in it. To solve this problem, systemic and indicative approaches, as well as general scientific methods of research, were used. The conducted research allowed to draw a conclusion about the prevalence of environmental indicators both in the public administration system and in scientific research, and also about the existence of certain problems in the information support of monitoring. The conclusion is made that it is necessary to take more fully into account the social, economic and scientific and technical indicators that make it possible to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of the system of waste utilization at the federal and regional levels. These indicators can be included as target in the developed regional programs for waste management, and are also included in the Unified State information system of accounting of waste from the use of goods.
Management. Environmental management
The article presents the results of analysis of business models created by the methods of Oliver Gassman and Alexander Osterwalder. The content of the business model, general and specific properties, the theory and practice of application, the processes of creation and change are considered. The influence of the business model on the conduct of competition in business is analyzed. The structure of the business model by functional elements is considered. A characteristic of the features of each element of business models is presented. It is revealed that modern business modeling is based on the priority of customer preferences of customers and the creation of a value proposition that has significant competitive advantages. Together with common features, the features of various business models are considered, which consist in varying degrees of universality and complexity of the approach to planning and organization of activities in the field of entrepreneurship. It is noted that the design of the business model involves two stages. The development stage contains the processes of creative thinking and the concept of activity. The developers aretasked with organizing the scheme of innovative transformations, drawing up a test sample, calculating key indicators and roars. To do this, you need to take steps: initializing business processes, generating ideas, integrating ideas. At the implementation stage, these ideas are applied in practice: prototypes of a new product are manufactured and internal resistance to changes is overcome. It is proven that the success of entrepreneurship increasingly depends on the ability of managers to see the prerequisites for changes in a timely manner, to develop and implement changes in the business model, to maintain high-level competitiveness.
The purpose of this article is to examine the question of the social determination of scientific knowledge. The formation of innovative strategy of management is possible when in society, its dominant resource is knowledge. Such strategy is cognitive management, acting in the knowledge society a new theory of management. Attention to this problem today is because in the present processes of globalization, the creation of new technologies, intensification of competition, reduce the role of material resources. Thus for the competitiveness in the leading position of out knowledge. Knowledge turned into a resource in the socio-economic context and meaning. Knowledge is a special resource that has the specific dynamics of formation and management requires special concepts. Knowledge management allows to find the necessary information and resources of knowledge, to acquire relevant knowledge to use them to implement strategies in the public interest.
Problems of environmental protection and ecological footprint the living generation, deteriorated in the second half of the XX century. The environmental activity of the state was considered by business as a factor in the aggravation of the economic situation in companies. In this regard, the cluster approach application possibility study for the creation of an organized recycling is relevant. The aim of the research is the study of the institutional framework of the Russia's recycling organization. The subject of research is the recycling clusters study. The study is based on the following methods: analysis, synthesis, deduction, systematic approach. The study showed that the anthropogenic pressure on the ecosystem increases annually: production and consumption wastes are increasing, especially in regions where polluting industries concentrate. The organized recycling creation in Russia and development of territorial industrial clusters are way of providing recycling. We consider resource recycling as a new source of neo-industrial economic growth, which can smooth out the increasing contradiction between the need to meet the growing material needs of the population and limited resources. Also the article shows that the formation of clusters in Russia is under the patronage of the state. On the basis of the study of innovative territorial cluster "Integrated processing of coal and industrial waste" in the Kemerovo region, the conclusion was reached that the cluster policy potential is not used fully and it is not conducive to the synergetic effect from the joint efforts of businesses, government bodies, investment and innovation activities agents.
The article considers the current situation in the sphere of handling solid industrial wastes, which sources of forming are concentrated in large industrial centers, and the placement takes place at landfills in the adjacent territories of neighboring municipalities. The analysis of recent changes in the legislative framework in the field of waste management regulation, which is relevant in the light of the list of instructions of the President on the results of checking the implementation of legislation is given. As promising measures that ensure closed looping of waste streams, obtaining secondary material resources and the gradual transition from a linear model of economic development to a circular one, the authors argue for regional schemes for industrial waste management based on creation of industrial technical waste processing complexes (eco-technological parks), as well as the segment of deep processing of waste.
The article analyzes the formation of a system for handling solid municipal waste (SMW) in the Novgorod region. The federal and regional legislation on handling solid municipal waste, the availability of sorting capacities are considered. The regulations for the operation of a regional operator in the sphere of handling SMW have been developed. An analysis of the territorial scheme for handling waste is given, according to which 20 types of MSW are formed in the Novgorod region. The list of solid municipal waste is formed on the basis of the analysis of the annual statistical reports of enterprises and organizations. The norms of accumulation of solid municipal waste are considered depending on the category of waste generation facilities. The system for handling solid municipal waste, formed in the Novgorod region, meets the requirements of the current legislation, takes into account the positive experience that is available in the region's enterprises. The developed reporting of the regional operator allows increasing the reliability of accounting in the sphere of SMW handling, and the received actual data will create a basis for designing new facilities for processing and disposing of waste.