Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
зарегистрировано в Федеральной службе по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций
ISSN:2310-1172

June 2018 (published: 21.06.2018)

Number 2(33)

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Economics

Оптимизация процессов транспортировки строительных изделий в целях повышения экономической эффективности работы завода железобетонных конструкций Antipova T.N., Chekashkina R.N.

The aim of this work is to develop mathematical models for optimizing transportation processes construction products, reinforced concrete structures and optimize the assignment of drivers to vehicles. These models allow us to maximize technician efficiency and minimize transportation costs. The object of research is precast concrete factory. Subjects research is the process of transporting the products of the plant of reinforced concrete structures and the process of appointing the drivers. The study used the methods of optimal decision making, in particular methods for solving linear programming problems using the software package Excel. The analysis of the structure of transport. Revealed that the operative (daily) may vary the construction site, where it is transported from the warehouses of reinforced concrete construction. Therefore, changing rates and plans transportation. This confirms the need for the development of a permanent computer-implemented model for the calculation of an optimal plan transport of products of plant concrete structures. Developed a permanent computer-implemented model of optimization of processes of transportation of building products allows to respond quickly to changes in the level of demand for concrete products, modify stocks, changes in tariffs of transport, changes in the number and location of users (construction sites), and minimizes total transport costs, and also helps to allocate drivers to vehicles so that the total effectiveness of their work was the highest. The developed model simple for practical use, universal and available to a wide range of users, that is can be applied to any business-related transportation. The availability of these models is primarily determined using the software package Excel.

Оценка удельных инвестиций в основной капитал малых и средних предприятий Pinkovetskaia I.S.

The relevance of the study is due to the implementation of the Federal strategy for the development of small and medium businesses for the period up to 2030. The aim of the work is to assess the investment in fixed capital of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and the impact on them of factors such as size categories of enterprises and their territorial location. The object of the study is SMEs located in each of the regions of Russia. Official statistics on the volume of investment in SMEs in 2016 for each of the 82 regions of the country were used. The comparative analysis of investment in fixed assets of SMEs by region and size of enterprises is based on relative indicators, namely per enterprise and per employee. Statistical methods of formation and processing of data arrays and economic and mathematical modeling based on the development of normal distribution density functions were used in the work. According to the generally accepted criteria, the analysis confirmed the high quality of the normal distribution density functions. As a result of the work, new information was obtained on the values of investments in fixed assets in three dimensional categories and 82 regions of Russia. The developed functions of normal distribution and the information obtained can be used to determine the estimated needs for financial resources of SMEs, the development of ratings of the investment climate in the regions, substantiate plans to support enterprises, including the provision of grants, subsidies, subventions, grants. The results of the study can be used by entrepreneurs, credit institutions, as well as state and regional authorities to monitor the effectiveness of investment in fixed assets and the implementation of the Federal strategy for the development of SMEs for the period up to 2030.

Рейтинговая оценка сбалансированного развития регионов Центрального федерального округа Babkova E.G. , Panakhov A.U.

A systematic approach to socioeconomic development is reflected in the concept of balanced development in the modern economy, emphasizing the multifaceted development of states, enterprises and regions. The application of this approach leads to the dissemination of appropriate tools for assessing both the dynamics and the achieved level of development of socio-economic systems. In the article, the methodology of the of balanced development level assessing of the regions, consisting of five stages, have been developed on the materials of the Central Federal District. At the first stage, the selection of initial data characterizing various aspects of economic development in the regions under study is performed; at the second stage complex characteristics that integrate the private indicators of the studied development aspects are calculated; at the third stage, a comparable assessment of the regions is carried out in the context of each indicator; at the fourth stage, an integrated rating assessment of their socio-economic development level is calculated, subsequently at the fifth stage it is possible to identify common patterns of development based on the interrelation of various factors and their impact on the rating score. As a result of the research, a rating of regions with different characteristics of balanced development, from the Moscow city and the Belgorod region to the Bryansk region and Ivanovo region, was compiled. The study showed that the greatest influence on the region balanced development level is mainly provided by production activity, while the more developed regions actively involve labor and investment resources in production activities, and also show greater innovative activity, while other aspects of regional development (including environmental) are not in a comparably related relationship.

Отношения собственности и хозяйственный механизм Vikulenko A.E. , Kolesnikov A.M.

The article describes the economic reforms of the XXI century in Russia, their goals, objectives, advantages and disadvantages. To quickly solve the problem of establishing a market economy in the country, the first stage of mass privatization in time was practically connected with the liberalization of prices, foreign economic activity and the elimination of policy planning. Thus in economic reform, the emphasis was mostly on private property, with the result that the savings Bank depositors and creditors state insurance is not automatically received your actual share in the state ownership. As a result, there was a difficult situation, requiring simultaneous increase in the consumption Fund and the accumulation Fund. It is stated that wealth is in use, not ownership. Therefore, for the development of the country, it is necessary to reconstruct and update the existing production, which is loaded by no more than 60% of its capacity, due to the policy of its innovative development, that is, there are no strategies for capital and it potential. Therefore, there is a huge performance reserves. Hence, the employment of workers is relatively small. Today we need a Fund-intensive direction of scientific and technological progress, a new reproductive strategy, coordinated with the widespread use of financial leasing and lease. All of the objective issues in the development of production can be solved in the next 3-5 years and provide a 3-6% annual GDP growth. Still, ownership relations in the period of reform, was not considered from the viewpoint of production efficiency, which promised one or another form of ownership. It is no accident that for centuries state property has been preserved, regardless of the ideology prevailing in the society, and private individual property is transformed into an associated, built on shared (mutual) principles. Economic efficiency ensures no private property, and the complete set has been built incentives and disincentives. Meanwhile, the Russian reformers do not intend to take the lease and lease to an honorable place in their programs, ignoring these conditions and, thereby, both Russia's own historical and economic experience, and all foreign experience. When the life cycle of an advanced firm's goods is shorter than the depreciation period of fixed assets, the acquisition of the latter into ownership is impractical. As a result, the growth of the country's economy increased the refinancing rate, but at the same time, reduced the size of GDP. New reforms in the management of the leasing process by the state as well as ways to improve them are proposed. At present, it is necessary to show and severely punish the irrational and economically illiterate use of the country's national wealth for selfish purposes, to the detriment of the country, openly conduct and solve all the necessary legal economic problems and prevent negative actions and consequences in this regard. The article describes the economic reforms of the XXI century in Russia, their goals, objectives, advantages and disadvantages. It is pointed out that wealth is precisely in use, not in ownership. Today we need a Fund-intensive direction of scientific and technological progress, a new reproductive strategy, coordinated with the widespread use of financial leasing and lease. New reforms in the management of the leasing process on the part of the state a, as well as ways to improve them are proposed

Несырьевой неэнергетический экспорт России макро- и мезоуровня: основные тенденции развития и направления поддержки Kovaleva E.N., Oganova A.A.

Considering fall of prices for primary resources in global market, decrease in domestic demand and existing exchange rate makes developing of non-primary non-energy export essential for Russia's economy growth. Main goal of the study is to determine general directions in developing and supporting export on macro- and mesolevel. The study focuses on export activity of firms in non-primary non-energy sector and its internal and external reasons, dependencies and context as object and subject accordingly. Due to lack of resembling regional studies research is exploratory. The article presents results of desk study. Authors analyzed and summarized statistical data characterizing export structure in Smolensk region of Russia using general and applied research methods. Study results clarify data gaps that affect management decisions; analysis of context for export activity on cross-regional comparison basis; identification of quantitative indicators that characterize interest of potential exporters in different measures and institutes supporting export activity; substantiation of several ways in further developing supporting mechanisms. The study sets directions for future field study which assumes use of focus groups and survey of SMEs representatives in export-oriented sectors.

Парадоксы современного этапа развития экономики России Rumyantseva E.E.

This article focuses on problems related to the distortion growth of a real social and economic situation in Russia in all its regions and the reduction of a science role under the corruption pressure. The author has revealed the essential divergence on the major macroeconomic indicators estimates showing the need of the assessment of the each information source reliability, including the corruption influence on its composition. The analysis of a source information reliability and the expert assessment expanded with the application of a paradoxes method as the methodologies of a complex and priority cross-disciplinary problems formulation of the current development. Among the significant paradoxes of the present stage of the Russia economy development the author was diagnosed: a paradox of the economic cycle stage identification, a paradox of the reporting indicators growth under the average salary against the background of her real decrease and a paradox of the simultaneous growth of the number of the rich and poor at the certain stages in the conditions of the legislatively established social values of the economic development. In article there are called the several factors (reasons) of the primary information distortion and its subjective interpretation. For the scientific research outlook it is offered their further systematization for the purpose of their complex account, but not everyone separately. For the policy correction at the macro- and micro-levels the author has allocated the priority directions of the providing both Russia economic security in general, and separately the households of the unprivileged segments of the population. Among the decisions connected with ensuring economic security of the country in the medium term it is offered to conduct the publicly monitoring of the key indicators on which it will be published now only the average data with the high extent of their distortion, and for the purpose of the destruction of the settled corruption communications causing to the society, Russia the serious economic damage - it is invited the updating of administrative shots on many posts, the introduction of the calculation of the personal, and not just collective efficiency for the top administrative management of the all management levels. Households are recommended to follow more accurately the rules of the rational, economically safe behavior.

Верификация взаимосвязи между уровнем национальной конкурентоспособности, качеством жизни населения и производительностью труда на примере развитых стран мира Shkiotov S.V., Markin M.I.

The modern theory of national competitiveness rests on the ideas expressed by M. Porter: labor productivity in the economy determines the level of its competitiveness and directly affects the quality of life of the population. Criticism of M. Porter's ideas on the part of the representatives of «pure economics», as well as data characterizing the state of the Russian economy (the growth of the level of national competitiveness against the backdrop of a decline in the rates of economic growth, ambiguous dynamics of labor productivity and the quality of life of the population), actualize the question of how much аre the predictions of M. Porter's theory true in the modern economy? The purpose of the article is to verify the hypothesis of a direct (statistically significant) relationship between the indicators of national competitiveness, the quality of life of the population, labor productivity, thereby confirming (or refuting) a number of postulates of M. Porter's modern theory of national competitiveness. Methodological base of the study: the study period is 10 years; research indicators: the level of national competitiveness, the quality of life of the population, labor productivity; sample of countries: 10 developed economies of the world. To test the hypothesis put forward, a correlation analysis is used. As a result of the research, it was found that the correlation (statistically significant) relationship between the national competitiveness of the economy and labor productivity is observed in 5 out of 10 studied economies, and the correlation (statistically significant) connection between the national competitiveness of the economy and the quality of life of the population is observed in 7 of the 10 economies studied. Thus, the hypothesis of a direct (statistically significant) relationship between the indicators of national competitiveness, the quality of life of the population, labor productivity for this sample of countries in the long-term time interval has been confirmed for most of the economies studied.

Теория предпринимательства и оценочные практики Shapiro N.A., Perekhozheva K.V.

The ambiguity and complexity of the interpretation of entrepreneurship or business is reflected in competing theoretical concepts, on the one hand, and expanding business valuation practices, on the other. As the authors of the article believe, the alternatives to theoretical interpretations of entrepreneurship and the development of applied tools for the evaluation of entrepreneurship practices, such as business valuation and evaluation of business competitiveness, determine the relevance of the study of entrepreneurship in modern conditions. The aim of the study is to find the value of the business within the advanced concept of the company or to ensure its competitiveness. The advanced concept is not limited to the study of short-term opportunities of the company in making a profit, but seeks to ensure competitiveness on the long-term horizon. The methodological basis of this study is the corpus of theoretical concepts of entrepreneurship and well-known applied methods of business valuation and competitiveness. The results of the study showed that alternative concepts of entrepreneurship currently coexist; there are two niches of entrepreneurial valuation practices: valuation and competitiveness. However, at the strategic level, the assessment of competitiveness is reduced to the assessment of business value. The ability to manage the value in the direction of its growth is considered as ensuring the strategic competitiveness of the enterprise or business. But the criterion for assessing competitiveness can probably be not only the growth of the business value or growth relative to other firms in the industry, but the growth of the business value in the industries that supply alternative products and services. The findings of the study may be useful for the further development of the theory of entrepreneurship, as well as the development of options for assessing the value of entrepreneurship and its competitiveness.

Management. Environmental management

Совершенствование системы управления и развития персонала на предприятие Minchenko L.V., Podavalkina E.V. , Zhuravleva M.N.

The problem of increasing the разделовefficiency of human resource наиболееmanagement образования becomes particularly реалистичной important at different социальноmanagement рыночн levels. The article времениconsiders approaches and methods in потенциаломpersonnel надо management. The above возможность mentioned aspects сотрудниковrequired собственном for the development of the system of подходhuman resources management in импровизацииenterprises изменение direction on the basis рабочие of the staff development. One of the являетсяmost ставку powerful and complex study motivational tools is the training of which personnel чтение, which simultaneously наоборот activates the staff, системыcontributing повышении to the diversity of workflow and has an сотрудниковimpact on the individual motives of толькоemployees итог (positive or negative является). Examines the development рискprogramme таких of the human resource of the системыorganization, which includes: наиболееimproving новых the psychological climate такое in the organization; development of вышеcorporate признание ethics and corporate системыculture; improvement of existing консервативныхincentive relevance systems, staff рабочем training, and organization of the упораlabor системы process; lower тьюторствоstaff turnover, implemented реалистичнойusing опытным a combination of management здесь personnel and additional workflow professional тьюторство education. Subject of разработокresearch – motivation and staff тремяtraining разработок. The aim of the study was to determine чтобы the role of staff достиженияtraining карьерном in the workplace. The relevance of the стратегическихtopic lies in the fact моделиthat возможность all organizations have обучения their staff, who effective must консервативных undergo training and effective improve their qualifications, in кадрахconnection новых with the development ставку of quality management, рамкахimprovement процессе methods and techniques элементомthat should be known by particularly each обучения employee for the proper организовывают performance of its work, the мотивыeffective времени functioning of the organization as a мотивыwhole. In modern conditions такихsuccessful balanced activity of organization реалистичной is inconceivable without the обученияbalanced импровизации strategic approach to реализацииtalent management – one of the main системыinnovative контролю assets. As shown консервативных by recent studies, the достиженияmost персоналом effective investment is вносяinvestment in human resource.

Политика управления инновациями и региональная инновационная система в Грузии Maridashvili M. , Meparishvili D.

This article investigates the concept and development process of Innovation Management and Regional Innovation system (RIS), also the application of RIS in Georgia. Characteristics of RIS are introduced. The research object is Regional Innovation System and Innovation policy in Georgia. The purpose of the study is to identify the problems that hinder of development innovation management policy in Georgia. Both, deductive and inductive methods are used. Regional Innovation System (RIS) is a new model for regional development and it could be a new means for a balanced economic development in a nation. Regional Innovation System is the model of grouping of the various business subjects and institutions based on the comparative advantages, the main goal of which, ineffective use and development of the physical and social infrastructures, natural and other material resources in given region and on this basis stimulation of the innovations and businesses for improvement of economic potential and competitiveness of the region. As the key elements of the Regional Innovation System there are regarded the public institutions (central, regional and local enterprises, universities, research institutes, special funds and business incubators, various supporting structures) stimulating innovation policies and foreign investors. The result of study identified that the following factors hinder innovation management development in the regions of Georgia: Non-consideration of the regional innovation system as a new model of regional development; Absence of the coordinating department implementing the innovation policy and relevant systematic vision; Absence of benchmarking and statistics of the regional innovation policy; Restricting effects of excessive vertical management. Etc. For the purpose of development of the innovation system in Georgia the following recommendations are given: Improvement of the innovation infrastructure through new technologies, research and development, development of the modern industrial clusters; Stimulation of all innovation components, including innovation products, innovation processes and innovative methods of organizations’ management; Support of instruments for mediator and collaboration between higher education, research centers, public sector institutions and small and medium enterprises (SME); Facilitation of practical application of the research results and creation of the innovation products / results; Improvement of effectiveness and productivity of the local enterprises; etc.

Экологический менеджмент – основной фактор социально-экономического развития сельских территорий Polukhina M.G.

Socio-economic development of rural municipalities directly depends on the current environmental situation. The aim of the study is to develop practical recommendations for the development of environmental management in rural municipalities. The article presents an analysis of the functions of local self-government from an environmental point of view, as well as environmental problems that it has to face every day in the course of its work. The object of the study was rural municipalities of Orel region. The analysis of normative legal acts concerning ecological, socio-economic, municipal development and management of rural areas is made. The following research methods were used: monographic, analysis and synthesis, comparative and logical analysis, strategic SWOT analysis of the environmental situation on the example of the Orel region. Produced strategic SWOT analysis had the objective of determining the directions of development of rural municipal entities, which were identified as: assessment of the implementation of municipal programs of development of territories must take into account the environmental components; development of a comprehensive municipal programs of future land use and the territorial planning; the establishment of the agricultural enterprises and other enterprises sewage treatment plants with daily power characteristics adequate to the volume of produced waste destined for disposal or recycling; at design, construction and reconstruction of the enterprises for production of livestock production it is obligatory to provide opportunities for processing of manure and slurry in organic fertilizers; construction of plants on processing and garbage, instead of its burial on solid waste grounds and unauthorized dumps; the organization of mass actions at Federal regional and municipal levels on increase of ecological culture of the population; institutional changes (deformation of public hearings on the issues of territorial planning and placement of new productions, granting local self-government the right "Veta" to decide on the organization of especially harmful productions) the role of local self-government in increasing their role in solving environmental problems and system control over the main pollutants located in rural areas.

Исследование процесса оценки эффективности работы команды Makarchenko M.A., Brovchenko E.A.

In the conditions of the existing competition in the market of innovative goods, the requirements for personnel, who are entrusted with the development of a new product or another type of activity, are increasing. The need to have efficient workers is dictated by the need to first introduce a new product to the market, according to which the team working on a specific task must work efficiently, without wasting time. As a result, the question arises as to how different teams from different fields of activity can be assessed. The purpose of the study is to develop a universal algorithm for assessing the effectiveness of the team based on existing models. The resulting evaluation algorithm can be applied to any team, regardless of its field of activity, which makes it unique. The article reviews the existing models for assessing the effectiveness of the team, a factor that aggravating the effectiveness assessment and suggests a generalized version of the evaluation.

Технологический менеджмент рационального природопользования (по материалам угольных месторождений Монголии) Chimeddorj Udvalnorov

The relevance of the presented study is that the economy of Mongolia is one of those that are developing in the modern market through the use of mineral resources, but do not abandon the goals of modernization. Such experience is important for comparing the opportunities and prospects of the Russian economy, which is also a raw material one. The article aims to study the features of coal production and use in Mongolia, taking into account the location of coal deposits, the volume of coal reserves and their quality characteristics, as well as the level of development of transport and logistics infrastructure in the country. The main stages and current trends of the coal market in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as the prospects of trade with China are presented. The main approach to the research is the economic-statistical analysis of the foundations regarding characteristics and indicators of development of the coal market, a functional analysis according to expert estimates, applied for the investigation of internal demand, trends and prospects-tiv export development, dynamics of coal mining and especially its use on internal it market. The conclusions can be useful in the field of technological management of the coal industry in the raw materials economies. The common components of such management are price policy, which depends on the development of the needs of the main consumer economy, the introduction of innovations for the growth of labor productivity and the solution of transport and logistics problems, which, when neglected, reduce the efficiency of the coal industry, and thus constrain the growth of the economy as a whole.

Пути рационализации и совершенствования системы управления персоналом с целью повышения экономической эффективности инновационных предприятий Negreeva V.V., Aleksashkina E.I., Kurkina N.V.

The article is devoted to the research of problems of scientific and technical personnel of innovative organizations. Having studied the content of the concept of «personnel management», the authors focus on the distinctive features of personnel management in innovative organizations, among which we can focus on highly skilled personnel who need a low degree of regulation of work activity, but at the same time in constant development as a way to maintain the innovative potential of employees . Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the state of the labor market of innovation in the Russian Federation. In the course of the analysis, the main problems of personnel management in innovation activity were revealed, both at the state level and at the private level, including low salaries of highly qualified personnel, imperfection of the selection system for candidates, and inadequate training in the workplace. In order to improve the effectiveness of the personnel management system, new solutions were proposed in the field of recruiting and training personnel in innovative organizations, the main of which is compliance with the principles of «mentoring».

Разработка метода экономической оценки величины ущерба от сброса сточных вод на примере теплоэнергетической отрасли Treiman M.G. , Varygina O.S.

At present, environmental activities are regulated due to totalitarian state control, which basically includes the system of environmental fines and sanctions, but there is no positive promotion of environmental activities of enterprises, there is no developed economic tools to evaluate it. One of the most effective elements is the monetary evaluation of the damage to the environment. The study authors showed that these issues are still undecided and relevant for the country. For example, the Northern TES plant of PAO «TGC-1» the calculation of damages in most common methods, nonconformities and proposed more adjustments that significantly changed approaches to calculation. The work aims to ensure that the economic component to fully reflect the environmental impact of organizations and can compensate for the damage, eventually leading to positive results in environmental, economic and social spheres. Analyzes the approaches and indicators will allow further businesses to control the impact of its own forces and the productive and improve the overall environmental situation on a regional scale.

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