Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media
ISSN:2310-1172

March 2021 (published: 02.03.2021)

Number 1(44)

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Economics

Поток создания ценности в технологии бережливого производства и перспективы его дегуманизации (на примере компании ТехноНИКОЛЬ) Anokhov I.V.

The article aims to study the value stream. The research's methodological basis is lean production technology. The research's object is a TechnoNICOL industrial company with many years of experience in successfully implementing lean production technology. The article states that such an essential lean production technology tool as a value stream map mainly focuses on physical and distribution activities. In this regard, it is proposed to complement the map with other functional industrial enterprise levels, namely economic, technological, and design levels, which also create value. These levels have differences in the ratio of routine and innovative activities, determining a company's ability to adapt quickly to market conditions. It is emphasized that the sources of lean production technology's efficiency are primarily the minimization of labor costs, inventories, and equipment universalization. This, in turn, requires the maximum alignment of the product manufacturing process and demand for it. Total digitalization facilitates these goals, having the potential to completely displace humans from the production process, leaving them only the technological and design functions. This will result in production dehumanization and its transformation into a closed technosphere. Besides, another ramification of this process will be the elimination of entrepreneurial activity as we understand it now and its transformation into administrative activity. The conducted research's results can be useful for updating the value stream map and predicting the long-term results of lean production technology implementation.

Сущность и структура национального хозяйства России, реального и финансового секторов в условиях структурной трансформации Zueva O.A.

At the present stage, there is no single approach to the study of the phenomenon of the economy and its elements. Domestic scientists are exploring the versatility and integrity of the economy (I.D. Afanasenko, D.Yu. Miropolsky). Foreign scientists represent the sectoral characteristics of the economy: the real and financial sectors act either as a single whole in the economic system (J.M. Keynes, H.F. Minsky, J. Tobin), or as independent systems (Pally). The author's positions are based on a scientific systemic representation of the economy as a whole and divided into parts - the real and financial sectors. The urgency of this problem requires a detailed consideration of the phenomenon and structure of the Russian economy and its elements. The essence of the Russian economy is presented through the laws of functioning and qualitative properties on the basis of systemic, historical and logical approaches, the theory of reproduction, capital and innovation. The opposite properties of the economy are revealed: "additivity" (independence of elements) and "entropy" (decay). The real and financial sectors as subsystems of the economy take into account all types of activities in the creation and redistribution of GDP, NR, the formation of innovative potential and its elements in the movement of different types of capital. Key subsystems in the structure of the real sector (traditional and innovative subsectors) and the financial sector (budget, currency, credit and exchange subsectors) characterize the role of actors in creating the results of the functioning and innovativeness of the economy, the nature of the formation of relationships between the real and financial sectors. On the basis of a systematic approach, the content of the scientific categories "national economy of Russia", "real sector" and "financial sector" are disclosed. Comprehending the essence of the world - economy means access to the laws and patterns of its creation and functioning and the subsequent understanding of the essence of the real and financial sectors. In the two-sector model of the Russian economy, opposite properties (additivity and entropy) are increasing, indicating the separation of sectors. Significant criteria for revealing the essence of the studied sectors are indicated: the share of activities in ensuring the rates of economic growth, the leading participation of agents in the reproduction and growth of the level of innovative potential. The developed structure of the real sector reflects structural shifts with a predominance of raw materials industries and the presence of sub-sector separation. The structure of the financial sector makes it possible to justify its separation from the real sector and the loss of national security. It is noted that with the digital transformation of the economy, organizational innovations can become the basic components of the relationships of the studied sectors. The financial mechanism needs to be activated.

Основные направления и факторы цифровой трансформации сектора науки и образования Gavrilyuk E.S. , Izotova A.G.

Introduction: the relevance of the analysis of the main directions and factors of digital transformation of the science and education sector is associated with the intensification of the process of digitalization of all spheres of life of the society, which is fixed as one of the priorities of Russia's development at the state level. Training personnel with modern digital competencies is one of the key tasks of the science and education sector. Considerable attention at this stage is focused on the development of "end-to-end" digital technologies, which will be used to modernize the existing education system and develop appropriate requirements for it. It is necessary to create conditions for the continuity of the educational process and its individualization in a single information educational space, through which it is possible to implement these conditions. The digitalization factor of the scientific and educational environment is reflected in the mass development of information technologies, expressed in the speed and availability of high-speed Internet. A more advanced level of technical equipment and the specifics of new professions related to the development of digital culture also contribute to the rapid development of digitalization in Russia.

Внедрение парадигмы устойчивых финансов в стратегию развития финансового рынка ЕАЭС Lvova N. A., Korshunov O.Yu. , Rakhimov Z.Yu.

The article is devoted to the problem of implementing the sustainable finance paradigm in the development of the integrated financial market of the EAEU. Justification of new directions of the Eurasian financial integration is carried out in four stages: 1) scientific ideas about the content of the sustainable finance paradigm are systematized; 2) the algorithm for finding joint priorities for sustainable development of the EAEU is clarified and tested; 3) model for complex characteristics of the market for sustainable financial services is applied; 4) financial solutions in support of the identified priorities of the Union are summarized;they are evaluated in the context of the contours of the market for sustainable financial services and the specifics of the analyzed financial systems. The research is based on the implication that the paradigm of sustainable finance should be considered in an inextricable relationship with the concepts of sustainable development and sustainable investment. At the same time, it is assumed that the category of sustainable investments should integrate the concepts of responsible, socially responsible and socially directed investments implemented using market, public and mixed investment mechanisms. Based on the refined algorithm for searching for joint priorities for the EAEU sustainable development, it is revealed that the main ones are currently goals no. 2 (eliminating hunger); no. 3 (health and well-being); no. 9 (industrialization, innovation and infrastructure); no. 10 (reducing inequality within countries); no. 16 (peace, justice and effective institutions). The characteristics of the market for sustainable financial services, in turn, made it possible to generalize the potential opportunities for implementing sustainable finance in the EAEU, which were specified taking into account the priorities of sustainable development and the specifics of national financial systems. As a result, it is proved that the implementation of the paradigm of sustainable Finance in the strategy for the development of the financial market of the EAEU should focus on credit mechanisms, mixed and targeted corporate financing. Other promising areas of Eurasian financial integration are the development of crowdinvesting and carbon unit markets.

Ответственные инвестиции: влияние ESG-рейтинга на рентабельность фирм и ожидаемую доходность на фондовом рынке Ovechkin D.V.

The purpose of the article is to disclose the phenomenon of responsible investment. The motives of firms to achieve ESG-goals (goals in the field of ecology, social sphere and corporate governance) are revealed. It has been found that ESG-goals do not always conflict with the desire to maximize profits. Firms with high ESG-rating tend to be more profitable. The channels of influence of ESG-rating on risk and profitability in the stock market are revealed. The motives prompting investors to highlight the ESG rating as a factor that determines investment decisions can be different: environmental protection; striving for increased profitability (responsible investments are often more profitable than classic ones); hedging against a certain type of risk. Assessment of responsible investments in the Russian stock market showed that responsible investments are more risky than classical ones, although the latter are less effective, since they lose in return per unit of risk.

Внедрение принципов экологического менеджмента на промышленных предприятиях Санкт-Петербурга Treiman M.G.

At present, the environmental situation is very important both for people and for the region as a whole, and the relationship between society and nature is gradually coming to the fore. In recent years, it has become more and more important to implement the principles of environmental management and resource management, especially for industrial enterprises. Many industrial enterprises began to implement the principles of environmental management in its activities as one of its basic directions is the use of techniques of business processes and their reengineering to improve ecological, economic and management activities. The study considers the author's proposals regarding the construction of the business process structure for individual production facilities of a machine-building enterprise, as well as the application of the business process reengineering method for a water and sewer enterprise. The use of these methods will improve the environmental and economic activities of organizations and stabilize their impact on the environment.

Региональная финансовая политика как фактор повышения эффективности природно-ресурсного комплекса Emirov N.D., Musieva M.A.

The article describes the system of tax and non-tax payments of the Russian Federation for the use of natural resources. Their role in the formation of the consolidated budget of the Chechen Republic is studied based on the analysis of the dynamics of budget revenues and expenditures over the past three years. The author identifies the need to form an optimal financial policy that promotes the development of the natural resources market and suggests ways to improve the tax system to achieve this goal.

Management. Environmental management

Система экологического менеджмента как инструмент повышения уровня кадрового потенциала организации Antonyuk E.A., Fridman M.F.

In connection with the strengthening of the tendency of the transition of the countries of the world community to a sustainable development strategy against the background of the deteriorating environmental situation, as well as based on the growth of consumer interest in environmentally friendly products, the coverage of enterprises and commercial organizations that voluntarily come to the eco-standardization of production and business processes in the company is growing. The eco-marker is currently acquiring the status of a competitive advantage not only in the end-product market, but also in the market of applicants, which leads the top management of companies to the following: standardization of the organization in the form of a change in the management process according to the principles of the environmental management system becomes a tool for development not only the final product of the company, but also to improve the level of human resources of the organization. The object of the research is the organization's personnel potential, the subject of the research is the environmental management system in the form of the implementation of the ISO 140001 standard. The following research methods were chosen: analysis, synthesis, generalization and classification, with the help of which the main goal of the study was achieved: to prove that the implementation of the standard ISO 140001 can be regarded as a tool for enhancing human resources in an organization. Ultimately, we proved that introducing an environmental management system into an organization using a commercial approach implies, among other things, training employees in EMS principles using one of the HRO improvement methods. In turn, this is also proof that the environmental management system helps not only to increase the prestige of the company and strengthen its position in the international market, but also to improve the internal environment of the company and increase the level of loyalty of the employees of the organization.

Управление талантами как направление развития человеческого капитала организации для создания инноваций Girsh L.V., Budrin A. G.

The article provides an overview of the concept of talent management used in organizations of the innovation-active type for personnel management within the framework of human capital management of organizations. The main theoretical approaches to the definition of the term «talent» and the concept of «talent management» are systematized because of the analysis of theoretical scientific literature, the opinions of practitioners-experts of talent management in innovative organizations, as well as the analysis of the experience used in organizations. The main features of talent management and the relationship of this concept with the human capital of the organization, the difference with human resources, as well as the problems and tasks of implementing the concept in innovative and active companies are identified. Within the framework of the work, the direction of the concept of human capital – talent management is considered, the features of the concept of talent management that distinguish this concept from human resource man-agement and personnel management are identified. The main difference between «talent management» and other concepts is based on the interpretation of the concept of «talent», where, based on the analysis of ex-pert interviews, as well as scientific literature, each employee in the organization is considered a talent. The concept of talent management in this case is one of the directions of the concept of human capital, which forms the overall intellectual potential of the organization. As the results of the study, the authors show and systematize various talent management practices based on the stages of development and attraction of talent by companies. The classification of the term talent and the talent management system in the framework of human capital management in the company is also proposed, thanks to which it is possible to create and de-velop innovations in companies.

Дизайн-мышление в бизнес-стратегиях корпораций Shchetinina E.A.

This article explores and clarifies the concept and essence of design thinking, analyzes the ways and features of the application of this approach in modern business, when building sustainable business strategies for corporations. The use of design thinking as a methodology for companies' search for competitive advantages and as a driver of innovation in today’s turbulent business environment, characterized by the limited usefulness and applicability of yesterday's strategies and methods of their construction, has been substantiated. The author has reviewed and commented on the stages of the design thinking process according to the model of the Stanford Institute of Design. The analysis of examples of the application of design thinking in the practice of certain modern world corporations, demonstrating the variety of directions and forms of implementation of the approach has been carried out. It has been established that the unifying element here is customer-centricity, the desire of companies to obtain deep empirical information about their consumers and the design of solutions that meet the identified requirements as much as possible, and sometimes anticipate them. As a rule, these solutions are characterized by a high degree of novelty, uniqueness and efficiency. Conclusions are made about the range of opportunities that this approach provides to understanding, revising and strategic management of a business. It was determined that the key task of design thinking for business is to provide innovative solutions that cannot be directly copied by competitors and are personalized for a specific company. Thus, a company can achieve a competitive advantage of the highest range, which allows it to build an effective business strategy even in a changing external environment, to win the competitive race. As a result of the work done, it was confirmed that the design thinking is appropriate for use in the development of sustainable and successful business strategies of modern corporations.

Экономико-экологические аспекты ресурсосбережения Negreeva V.V., Kochegarova T.S., Filimonova A.V. , Tcimbalist-Kolesnikova I.A.

The main economic and environmental aspects are largely related to renewable energy sources. The global problems of mankind require new solutions in the field of resource conservation and resource provision of economic entities. The introduction of innovative technologies into the resource-saving management system allows for a flexible transition to cyclical and "green" forms of the economy. The article presents the stages of the conceptual development of resource conservation. Models are studied, the characteristics of which are aimed at reducing resource consumption. The authors focus on their extensive, intensive and innovative development. The relevance of studying the issue of rational resource conservation lies in the trend of constant growth in consumption, and, consequently, production. The increase in production volumes leads to excessive consumption of resources, which negatively affects both the economic condition of the enterprise and the environmental aspect. The paper studies the concepts of the evolutionary development of resource conservation. The transition to the use of renewable energy sources is studied, the classification of biofuel technologies is summarized and presented. The advantages and disadvantages of using biofuel in the resource-saving system have been identified. The factors influencing the effective cultivation of biofuel crops and negatively affecting the overall ecosystem have been identified. The industrial development of renewable energy sources (RES) enables countries to plan and develop various models of waste-free production. Respect for the use of natural resources, accurate calculation will help preserve the environment.

Применение зарубежного опыта оценки деятельности системы стандартизации в российской практике Aleksashkina E.I., Shpakovich D.K., Matersheva V.V. , Martynenko O.V.

The article analyzes the methods of assessing the system of standardization of foreign countries. The experience of the United States of America in the development of standardization is analyzed in detail. In Germany, the information provided on the standardization committees is minimal. In France, information on industry standardization bureaus is not centrally published, however, individual industry bureaus' websites contain individualized reports and mainly contain information on action plans. The study of the world practice of using the indicators of the standardization system shows that in most industrialized countries of the world standardization systems consist of two main elements - thematic organizations for the development and consideration of projects of individual groups of standards, and managing or coordinating organizations. The relationship between them is different, which determines the degree of centralization of the standardization system. An analysis of the reporting of standardization documents showed that some of them focus on financial reporting, while other organizations provide more detailed data on the work carried out directly related to standardization activities.

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