Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media
ISSN:2310-1172

December 2022 (published: 12.12.2022)

Number 4(51)

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Economics

Концепция устойчивого развития Российской Федерации: анализ инноваций в области низкоуглеродной экономики Golubeva A.S. , Volkov A.R.

The paper considers the processes of emergence and implementation of innovations in the field of low-carbon economy, arising in the context of implementing the concept of sustainable development of the Russian Federation. These projects are presented as a means of increasing the level of environmental and economic balance of socio-economic development of the regions in the coordinate system «Nature-Society-Human». The authors consider the current stage of the formation of the concept of sustainable development with the definition of the impossibility of further development without taking into account the conservation and support of ecosystems through the development of innovation in the field of low-carbon economy and the identification of vectors of reorientation from the principles of frontal economy and destabilizing coexistence of the coordinate system «Nature-Society-Human» in favour of harmonious improvement of the sustainable development concept. The retrospective analysis of the transition to the concept of sustainable development has identified the need to implement mechanisms and priorities of public administration to meet human needs and increase human capabilities with a focus on environmental conservation. The authors review existing approaches to defining a low-carbon economy and review international instruments for stimulating the transition to a low-carbon economy. Particular attention is paid to such instruments as environmental management system, non-financial reporting of organisations, carbon market and stimulating innovation in this area. As a result of the study, the authors present the definition of sustainable development in the context of low-carbon economy development, propose categories and classification of innovations in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals, as well as the authors' distribution of innovations according to the triad of decarbonization of the economy, which allowed to determine the mechanism of strategic development priorities of the Russian Federation regions.

Методика оценки конкурентоспособности программных продуктов Ivakhnik D.E.

The article offers the author's interpretation of the concept of competitiveness of a software product (SP). To assess the phenomenon under study, it is proposed to use 86 indicators in 4 functional areas: technical indicators of SP quality, socio-psychological indicators of SP quality, economic indicators of SP, contribution of SP to the digital competitiveness of an economic entity. Out of 86 indicators of the competitiveness of SP, the author proposed 23 new indicators, and also proposed a method for calculating them. The author suggests that in the scope of the concept of competitiveness of SP, along with previously known functional areas, to distinguish 2 new areas: socio-psychological indicators of the quality of SP and the contribution of PP to the digital competitiveness of an economic entity. This approach allows us to take into account important criteria that affect the final choice of SP, as well as to expand the methodological and information base for assessing the competitiveness of SP. The author's algorithm and principles of assessing the competitiveness of SP are proposed. Conducting an analysis of the competitiveness of SP on the basis of the formulated principles, the author's concept, indicators and evaluation algorithm allows you to transform multi-dimensional individual indicators into a dimensionless value, formulate reasonable conclusions about the objective level of competitiveness of SP and make appropriate management decisions

Пространственная трансформация Европейского Севера России: тенденции и особенности управления Patrakova S.S.

The strategic goal of modern Russia is to ensure the sustainable development of the territories of the North and the Arctic, which have significant economic potential and extensive reserves of natural resources. Achieving this goal implies the need to solve a whole range of tasks (social, economic, infrastructural, etc.), including those related to the formation of the most optimal structure of the economic space. The purpose of this article is to study trends and identify the features of managing the spatial transformation of the European North of Russia, including taking into account the need for the country's transition to an innovative development model. The object of research is the region as a complex socio–economic system, the subject is its spatial transformation. The methods of comparative analysis, generalization, synthesis, as well as abstract-logical and other methods of scientific information processing are used in the work. The information base of the study was made up of Rosstat data, as well as regulatory legal acts and strategic documents in the field of territorial and spatial development of the northern territories of Russia. The methodological basis of the study was the works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of regional and spatial economics, economic geography. In the course of the study, the key trends and directions of transformation of the space of the European North are highlighted: location and communication compression, strengthening the connectivity of key economic agents, transition to new schemes of organization and models of space exploration. It is determined that the management of the spatial transformation of the region is mainly focused on the further development of the resources of the North and the Arctic and the preservation of the export-raw material model of the economy, and not the creation of an innovative economy of new technological structures. It is revealed that in the whole set of tools for managing the transformation of the region, traditional for domestic practice and innovative tools prevail. The results obtained in the course of the study can be used by state authorities and local self-government in improving the policy of socio-economic and spatial development of territories, as well as by researchers and other interested persons in conducting research on similar topics.

Оценка использования цифровых технологий экономическими субъектами в регионах России Pinkovetskaia I.S.

In recent years, most countries have undergone a significant transformation of socio-economic systems based on the widespread use of digital technologies. These technologies have provided a significant increase in the efficiency of management and production processes. This transformation affected enterprises and organizations located in Russia. The purpose of our research is to evaluate the indicators characterizing the use of three groups of technologies by enterprises and organizations, namely machine learning, intelligent decision support systems and big data analytics in the regions in Russia. The official statistical information for 2020 was used as empirical data. The research was based on the development of mathematical models in accordance with the methodological approach proposed by the author. At the same time, normal distribution functions were developed that describe the shares of enterprises and organizations using these technologies in the total number of all enterprises and organizations located in each of the regions. The study showed that in 2020, an average of 3.6% of enterprises and organizations in the regions of Russia used machine learning technologies. The level of use of intelligent decision support systems by enterprises and organizations in the regions of Russia was even lower - 3.1%. Slightly more (4.0%) enterprises and organizations used big data analysis technologies. The results of the study showed that, despite the relatively recent start of the introduction of the technologies in question, they are used at enterprises and organizations in all regions of Russia. The results of the work can be used in the activities of structures related to the development of digitalization and the justification for allocating additional resources to regions with a low level of development of the technologies in question.

Ключевые проблемы функционирования реального сектора хозяйства России под воздействием внешних причин Zueva O.A.

Many approaches to the study of the phenomenon of the economy, its structure (real and financial sectors), the essence and problems of the functioning of the real sector are presented by different scientists. Western scientists consider sectors autonomously to each other (J. Keynes, H. Minsky, J. Tobin) or in mutual influence (T. Palley). The phenomenon of the real sector is presented as a subsystem of the economy and includes production activities. Three main positions of domestic scientists represent the real sector as 1) the sphere of material production without taking into account services, scientific and commercial activities (A. Arkhipov, V. Kirichenko); 2) part of the economy associated with the stages of reproduction (production and consumption) and the formation of employment (S. Dyatlov, D. Miropolsky); 3) the totality of material production of goods and intangible services and the trade sector (A. Navoi, V. Cherkovets.) The author's position is to divide the domestic economy into real and financial sectors, functioning autonomously and in unity of sectors with the hegemony of the financial sector. Under the conditions of transformation, the real sector, as a subsystem of the Russian economy, is associated with the production of goods and non-financial services and needs to be revived. The research methodology, domestic and foreign practical experience made it possible to identify the inefficiency of the functioning of the real sector of the Russian economy due to the separation of sectors. The problems of functioning of the real sector under the influence of external causes are systematized: the decline in competitiveness, profitability and innovation potential; increasing technological backwardness. The problems are exacerbated under the influence of external factors: a slowdown in the growth of the world economy, a ban on access to the global capital market and technologies, global resource price dynamics, trade bans, the introduction of the ESG - agenda, etc. The external causes and problems of the inefficiency of the functioning of the real sector in Russia in the context of sanctions and the conflict in Ukraine are presented. Over the past twenty years, the inefficiency of economic policy has been noted due to the untimeliness and insufficiency of providing state assistance to agents of the real sector, the lack of interest of the subjects of the credit subsector to provide them with loans. This requires active state support for the revival of the real sector of the Russian economy in the framework of import substitution.

Финансово-экономические аспекты энергосбережения и энергоэффективности в РФ Nikiforov A.A., Nikiforova V.D., Achba L.V., Kovalenko A.V.

The article is devoted to the study of trends in the composition and structure of energy resources consumption in a phased transition from a linear to a circular ecosystem. The authors focused their attention on topical issues of energy saving and energy efficiency, using the methodology of comparative and systematic approaches to research. The main research objectives were to: a) identify trends in energy consumption of traditional and renewable energy sources over the past few years in Russia and abroad; b) identify reasons hindering the implementation of energy saving programs in Russia and at the level of its regions; c) assess Russia's potential to fulfill its obligations stated in the Paris Climate Agreement; d) substantiate directions for increasing energy saving and energy efficiency based on technical re-equipment of energy In accordance with the set tasks, we summarized domestic and foreign scientific research in the field of energy saving and energy efficiency, as well as data from sectoral statistics and Rosstat.

«Доказательная экономическая политика» и «доказательная медицина»: продуктивно ли заимствование? Shapiro N.A., Goryachiy S.A.

In this article, the authors aim to answer the question: to what extent is it justified to borrow or trans-plant medical experimental methods of evidence to the economic soil in the management of corporations and the state. Within the framework of this goal, a brief historical overview of the formation of the method of evidence–based medicine and a description of its "gold standard" - randomized trials are given, the condi-tions and algorithm of experiments in medicine and economics are compared. The " еvidence-based " method in medicine means that evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the drug was obtained in randomized tri-als using white mice that make up the control group of "pure lines". Without the use of "clean lines", the de-gree of evidence, as well as the accuracy of the regulatory impact assessment (ODS), is sharply reduced. Showing that there are no "clean lines" in the economy, the article, however, does not propose to abandon experiments in economics in general and economic policy in particular. The need for an experiment arises from the impossibility of accurate predictions that would not depend on the changing context of political and economic circumstances. Within the framework of the well - known theory of economic policy , I .Tinbergen traces a close connection between effective decisions in the field of economic policy and ongoing experiments. The conclusions of the article are that experiments in economic management objectively cannot claim to be of a level of evidence similar to medical, but economic theory, offering solutions in the field of economic policy, should not abandon experiments. Correctly defined boundaries and possibilities of experi-ment in the field of economic policy presupposes the differentiation of models and tools for achieving equi-librium and goals of economic policy.

Обеспечение устойчивого развития для эффективного функционирования предприятия Negreeva V.V., Bobylev A.V. , Kochegarova T.S.

Modern enterprises face acute issues of ensuring sustainable development, which operates in difficult environmental conditions. There is a wide range of tools and aspects of the management system used for the effective operation of the enterprise. The authors present one of the approaches that allows you to balance the relationship between the internal and external environment - an integrated management system, and provides a promising opportunity for sustainable development. The relevance of the study lies in the fact that for competitive enterprises that are developing steadily, it is very important to have a standardized management system. The purpose of the study is to identify current trends and problems in the implementation of an integrated management system to ensure the effective functioning of the enterprise. Standardization of the environmental activities of the enterprise and ensuring continuous improvement of the integrated management system are necessary for the effective functioning of the enterprise, the formation of competitive advantages. To set goals in various areas of management, it is necessary to use the experience of international management standardization - MSS (Management System Standards), for the further implementation of the process of implementing an integrated system and its successful functioning. The MSS is a tool that allows you to assess and confirm the compliance of the organization's practice with international requirements. This study presents objective external prerequisites used as tools for improving management based on international standards for management systems of organizations. The result of the study is to determine the trends of special attention to the system of effective functioning of the IMS and its intended purpose. The process of formation of conditions for the sustainable development of the enterprise based on the introduction of a quality management system is proposed.

Management

Принципы эффективного управления и структура инновационной среды предприятия Gurianov P.A.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the effective development and construction of an innovation management system in an enterprise. The first section of the work describes the essence of innovation management, discusses in detail the general and special functions of innovation management, the main tasks and modern trends. The second section describes the main stages of building an innovation management system in an enterprise, analyzes the main types of organizational structures of enterprises that have implemented innovation management. The planning function in the innovation management system is also considered in more detail. The third section provides practical information on building a comprehensive innovation management system. The graphic images present various approaches to building an innovation management system in an enterprise - a process approach and building a three-dimensional model within the framework of a project approach. Innovation management today is an objective necessity for any commercial enterprise operating in the modern market. Today, an enterprise's innovations are its competitive advantages, allowing it to take a strong position in the market. There are two approaches to innovation - intra-corporate and open. Some businesses combine both approaches. To a greater extent, modern innovative technologies are associated with digitalization and the widespread dissemination of communication using the Internet. There are a large number of modern technologies through which commercial enterprises can promote their services. This includes blockchain, artificial intelligence, chat bots and other innovations. The main purpose of digital technologies is the automation and robotization of some production processes, reducing costs and expenses. Organizations implementing innovation management should choose how innovation management will be implemented in the enterprise and how the structure of the enterprise will be changed. Some enterprises single out innovation management as a separate structural unit, other enterprises implement innovation management within the framework of linear-functional or matrix interaction, and third enterprises prefer to combine both types of management. One way or another, the methods of introducing an innovation management system, changing the structure of an enterprise will depend on the individual characteristics of the organization, industry, goals and objectives of the company. As a ready-made innovation management system, the author proposed a complex system that combines the stages of the management cycle, types of innovations and legal acts.

Риск-ориентированный подход в управлении качеством пищевой продукции для обеспечения ее безопасности Angipov D.G. , Kalemagina K.S. , Sergeeva I.G.

Currently, process control in the production of food products is enhanced, including through the mandatory application of the principles of food safety. During incoming quality control of food products by retailers, they check for accompanying documentation, labeling in accordance with TR CU 021/2011, shelf life and general characteristics of goods. However, the control of the reliability and authenticity of the results provided by the external supplier-manufacturer is not always observed due to a number of factors, including: the incompetence of staff to conduct a detailed analysis of the supporting documentation for the acceptance of food products, the preference for checking the appearance and labeling of goods, the limited amount of time for admission. As a result of these actions, there is a growing risk of poor-quality food products reaching the final consumer. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of implementing the principles of food safety in the acceptance of food products by retailers based on the establishment of control points. The object of the study are the principles of food safety used to monitor the quality of food products. A consequence/probability matrix was used as a tool to assess the level of risk. The study identified and analyzed the most common risks in the acceptance of food products, considered the existing ways to verify the authenticity of supporting documentation, proposed a scheme of verification of external supplier by retailers and the algorithm for its implementation. The presented material can be applied to study and evaluate the possibility of using the principles of food safety in the process of selecting an external supplier and the acceptance of food products with the purpose of subsequent implementation.

Управление параллельным импортом и его влияние на цены. Международный опыт Makarova O.N., Kuzenkova E.S. , Martynenko O.V.

Parallel import management is aimed at a set of specific actions that trigger the process. The legalization of this direction in Russia has given entrepreneurs more action in this area. The import of imported goods into the country is aimed at providing the domestic market with goods in demand, which allowed prices to stabilize. However, there are also problems in managing this area, since parallel imports are aimed at developing competition, thereby stimulating a reduction in prices. On the other hand, copyright holders lose full control over imported goods, which means that the risk of counterfeiting increases. In some areas, such as medicines and medical equipment, it is especially important to avoid such risks. At the same time, most of the major eco-economies of developed countries allow parallel imports, limiting it only selectively. The article analyzes the world experience, which can help demonstrate how the impact of parallel imports affects the development of the country and what difficulties may arise.

Вопросы государственного управления антикоррупционной деятельностью Smirnova I.V.

The anti-corruption policy of the state is aimed at developing and implementing a set of versatile and consistent measures within the framework of the adopted foundations of the constitutional system in order to minimize the causes and conditions that give rise to corruption in various spheres of state and public life. The relevance of the study is due to the acuteness of the problem of the spread of corruption in the Russian Federation, which is reflected in the indicators of the growth of corruption-related crimes. The purpose of the study is to pose the problem of the growth of corruption crimes and the development of measures for state management of anti-corruption activities. The study used the method of analyzing the state of corruption crime on the basis of statistical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, and judicial statistics. The result of the study is the identified negative consequences and causes of corruption, as well as the proposed tools of public administration in the fight against corruption, the most effective of which are information technologies. In connection with the development of digital technologies and their impact on the economy, education, healthcare and other spheres of state and public life, these innovations were introduced into the legal system, namely into all structural elements, including the mechanism for combating such a phenomenon as corruption crime. Information technologies are designed to reduce the complexity of the processes of using information resources. The introduction of digital technologies will increase the level of awareness of citizens about the rules and procedures; publish data on the facts of corruption, in order to restrain employees from corruption, as well as to form the views of citizens regarding corruption.

Роль университета в управлении зонами промышленного симбиоза Daria Mironova, Igor V. Baranov, Shein V.М.

To date, insufficient attention has been paid to the development and application of the concept of industrial symbiosis in Russia. At the same time, the experience of foreign countries demonstrates the expediency of using this concept as a driver of regional economic development, including socio-economic and environmental components. The current mechanisms of interaction between enterprises, universities and the state are not effective enough, which, consequently, makes it difficult to implement the principles of circular economy in the Russian Federation. The aim of the research is to develop new ways of cooperation between organizations to initiate and implement projects based on the concept of industrial symbiosis. The authors propose the concept of "Industrial Symbiosis Zones" according to which universities will be the central link in building such cooperation. In addition, one of the proposed mechanisms for popularizing the principles of closed-loop economy is the development of a digital platform of industrial symbiosis. The study presents two projects in the field of fuel and energy complex, based on the concept of closed-loop economy: in the first case we are talking about the cooperation of the university, municipality and industrial partners; in the second - the cooperation of the university and enterprise. The results obtained can contribute to the sustainable development of Russian regions.

Управление рисками как способ повышения конкурентоспособности Vasilenok V.L., Kulebakina Y.Y. , Cherkasova A.V. , Zakhvatkina E. , Boyadzhi K.S.

На современном этапе рыночной экономке существует большая конкуренция среди производителей товаров различной категории, поэтому каждый руководитель заинтересован в повышении имиджа и конкурентоспособности своей организации при помощи различных средств. Одним из факторов, влияющий на конкурентоспособность организации, ее прибыли и ее существование, является качество продукции, так как потребитель всегда нацелен на получение качественного продукта, который будет удовлетворять все его потребности. В последнее время для повышения качества продукции и улучшения имиджа организации использовалось внедрение системы управления качеством, которая позволяла настроить управление организацией и само производство. Но, сейчас внедрения одной системы является недостаточно, так как в процессе производства организация сталкивается со множеством неопределенностей, которые могут привести к различным последствиям, в том числе к финансовым потерям. Управление рисками является одной из составляющих организационного процесса производства, поскольку позволяет снижать издержки различного вида: потери производства, финансовые затраты, уровень травматизма. Поэтому важно не только внедрить управление рисками в организацию, то и периодически осуществлять мониторинг рисков и пересмотр для того, чтобы оценить эффективность предпринятых мероприятий по снижению рисков, но и не допустить ущерб от возникновения нового риска. Крах некоторых организаций показывает, что повышенный риск может существовать на различных цепочках жизненного цикла организации, в том числе в процессе производства: неправильные управленческие решения, сбой в оборудование, задержка поставок – все это может привести к снижению качества продукции, тем самым организация будет своих потребителей и становится неконкурентоспособной.

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