Scientific journal NRU ITMO
Series "Economics and Environmental Management"
Registration certificate ЭЛ № ФС 77 – 55411 от 17.09.2013
registered by the Federal Inspectorate Service for Communication, Information Technologies and Communication Media
ISSN:2310-1172

March 2020 (published: 04.03.2020)

Number 1(40)

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Economics

Описание и качественный анализ новой модели функционирования агентства недвижимости Druzhinin A.E. , Alekseeva N.S.

Studies of the transformation of small business, including real estate, under the influence of digitalization of the economy is not enough attention, which is an omission, since it is small business that is the source of new approaches and models of doing business, being under the influence of fierce competition of the external environment, which determines the relevance of the presented study. The aim of the work is to describe and qualitative analysis of the new model of real estate Agency functioning. The object of the study is a real estate Agency, the subject of the study is a new model of real estate Agency. At the moment, the new model described in this paper is at the stage of implementation, revision and evaluation by several Russian agencies, which determines the novelty of the presented study. The main methods in the work are the method of observation and collection of facts, the method of abstraction, the logical method. The paper considers a new model of functioning of real estate Agency, which arose under the influence of digitalization of society and entrepreneurship. The article discusses the stages of work with the customer in the provision of services for the sale of apartments. The reasons of emergence of a new model of functioning of real estate Agency are revealed. The grounds for the emergence of a new model of real estate Agency. The advantages and disadvantages of the new model of work are revealed. The presented model of the real estate Agency can be recommended to owners and top managers of real estate agencies, as well as used in those areas where the owners of companies feel a strong dependence on key employees, closing the interaction with customers on themselves.

Развитие экспорта в России и Беларуси: структурные особенности и реализация возможностей инфраструктурной поддержки Kovaleva E.N.

External challenges and the internal situation in the Russian economy in 2014-2016 exacerbated systemic problems in the sphere of foreign economic activity and led to the adoption of emergency measures to reorganize the infrastructure to support non-oil non-energy exports and mechanisms to stimulate them. Despite the fact that in order to integrate the previously disparate functions of financial and non-financial support for non-oil non-energy exports in 2015, was created the group of companies of the Russian export center (REC), which had a positive impact on the revitalization of the export of Russian enterprises continue to be valid objectives of increasing exports and improving the mechanisms of institutional financial and non-financial support for exporters and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of the study was search and descriptive in nature and was defined as identifying points of growth in the potential of non-resource non-energy exports and improving the methods of infrastructure support for SMEs in Russia. As an object of comparative analysis, the indicators of export and institutional support of the Republic of Belarus as a member state of the EAEU and the CIS, comparable in initial starting positions, the status of a country with a transition economy, while having limited natural resources, were used. The research used General scientific methods, in particular, comparative and comparative analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, generalization, analogy; as well as applied methods of marketing research and statistical data analysis. As a result of the study, significant differences in the export performance of the two countries and differences in the mechanisms of infrastructure support were revealed, which allowed to propose directions for further development of Russian support institutions and improvement of mechanisms for enhancing the export activity of Russian enterprises.

Прекращение предпринимательской деятельности: причины и стратегии Pinkovetskaia I.S.

The termination of activity by entrepreneurs received insufficient attention in the works of Russian and foreign scientists. At the same time, sooner or later every entrepreneur ceases his activity. The aim of the study is to analyze the main causes and ways of business termination, as well as to assess the level of exit from business for various reasons in economically developed countries. The results of the Global entrepreneurship monitoring project for 2018, as well as data provided in scientific publications, were used as initial data. In the course of the study, the classification of the reasons for the termination of entrepreneurial activity is proposed and the values of indicators characterizing these reasons are estimated. The strategies of entrepreneurs' exit from business, based on different options, forms and methods of implementation relevant processes, are considered. Originality and scientific novelty of the work: it is shown that in most economically developed countries exogenous causes do not have a great influence on the exit of entrepreneurs from business; the termination of business activity is mostly due to endogenous and personal reasons; every thirteenth entrepreneur goes out of business in order to turn the accumulated assets in the course of their activities into cash. The study aims to understand the causes and strategies of business cessation. It is of scientific and practical importance, as it brings new information about the features of the termination of business activities, as well as the existing levels of exit from business for various reasons. The availability of such information is of interest to entrepreneurs, as well as government agencies and other organizations associated with the formation of plans, programs and forecasts for the development of the business sector. This article continues the discussion on the issue of business termination.

Избыточный долг и денежно-кредитная политика в Словацкой Республике Pugacheva E.S., Karastelev B.Ya.

We are investigating the consequences of excessive growth of international debt, as they relate to both debtor and creditor countries. In particular, we assess the impact of monetary policy on financial stability and how it can be used to smooth borrowers, as well as lenders, consumption during the business cycle. Based on [Goodhart, Peiris, Tsomocos, 2018], we establish that an independent anti-cyclical monetary policy that reduces liquidity whenever debt increases, while expanding it when default increases, reduces consumption volatility. In fact, monetary policy provides policy with an additional degree of freedom. We apply our approach to the economy of Slovakia and the Eurozone countries in the 1990 s. In our model, we introduce an endogenous default in la [Shubik, Wilson, 1977], according to which debtors incur social security costs when renegotiating their contractual debt obligations that are commensurate with the level of default. However, this cost depends directly on the business cycle and should be countercyclical. Consequently, restraining monetary policy reduces trade volume and efficiency, thereby increasing default. This occurs when the default cost increases the associated default accelerator channel, generating higher default speeds. On the other hand, lower interest rates increase trading efficiency and, consequently, reduce the amplitude of the business cycle and contribute to financial stability. In General, the appropriate monetary policy design complements the financial stability policy. Modeling endogenous default allows us to study the interaction of monetary and macroprudential policies.

Вовлечение персонала в разработку оптимизации процессов народного хозяйства с использованием методик генерирования идей Olga Tikhomirova, Karsheva K.O. , Reznichenko R.O. , Baranov V.V.

The purpose of the presented work is the analysis of available methods intended for carrying out sessions on ideas-generation methods, the analysis of possibilities of application of ideas-generation methods for change of production processes in the national economy. To date, only humans have a unique ability to create innovative ideas, not a single machine with all its modern features is not capable of such a function. Just imagine that behind absolutely every successful and failed project is a person or a group of people who once generated or is now generating a new idea. At the same time, we should not forget that innovative ideas will not harm the existing enterprise, regardless of whether it is successful or requires immediate reengineering. In the presented work it would be desirable to pay more detailed attention to possible methods and ways of generation of innovative ideas at the enterprises. In the article we will answer such questions as: what methods can be used for the session on the methodology of generating ideas, and how large is the willingness of economically active part of the population of the post-Soviet countries to participate in such sessions. I would like to draw the reader's attention to the fact that the article does not offer ready-made ideas, but considers the methods and principles of idea generation. The result of the study is the justification of the implementation prospects of the program on the ideas-generating methods in industrial enterprises, justified by the presence of the majority of respondents ' proposals to change the production process, improve the functioning of the enterprise, adjust the management structure.

Цифровизация как инструмент планетарной глобализации Kruglov V.V. , Nikiforova V.D., Nikiforov A.A.

The article analyzes the controversial issues of the relationship between globalization and digitalization of the economy, which have an impact on national and world economies. The whole history of mankind testifies to the transition to new forms of knowledge and technological changes associated with the expansion of the digital space and the world of numerical values. The diversity of views on the content and nature of the impact of these phenomena on the socio-economic system of the state strengthen the discussion of the problem under consideration, which becomes particularly relevant in the transition to Industry 4.0, Society 5.0. It can be expected that as the expansion of the use of digital technologies together with the formation of appropriate infrastructure will become more global, there will be an "erosion" of the powers of national States focused on digital development in the organization of socio-economic life of their citizens and economic entities. Caution in assessing the challenges and threats associated with the digitalization and globalization of the economy is of particular importance for developing countries, which are taking a catch-up position with respect to developed countries. Based on the analysis of the factors constraining the processes of digital transformation in Russia, the possibilities of connecting national business structures to the formation of more complex value chains are determined. Retrospective analysis and systematic approach to the study of the impact of digital technologies on economic growth on a global scale allowed to reveal the issues of combination of models and rates of socio-technological renewal in the global and national economies. The theoretical understanding of the processes of global digitalization was made from the position of qualitative analysis of changes in the socio-economic system of a globalizing society. For successful implementation of the national program of formation of high-tech and digital economy the importance of Russia has acquired tax and other indirect forms of state support for the introduction of digital technology in companies, creating national software products, information security and networking products, management of digital clusters value chain, etc.

Финансовые технологии и их роль в стабилизации экономики Mazitova E.T. , Prihodko R.V.

This article analyzed key economic indicators, the change of which, according to the experience of 2008, indicates an impending economic recession. Also, the article assesses Russia's readiness for a predictable crisis by analyzing the volume and structure of the national security fund and the level of loans to citizens. Further, financial technologies were considered as a tool to prevent the economic crisis. The main goal of innovative companies in the fintech sector is to exclude banks as intermediaries from the financial system. The key areas that are accepting more investment and are marked by increased investor demand are the areas of bank transfers and consumer lending. This once again confirms the hypothesis about the serious intention of the financial technology market to eliminate, on the one hand, a high margin but, as the figures show, the banking sector is ineffective for the population and economy.

Основные тренды цифровой логистики Vasilenok V.L., Kruglova A.I. , Aleksashkina E.I., Negreeva V.V., Pastunova S.A.

The article discusses the current topic of the formation of threads in digital logistics. In the digital economy, logistics and supply chain management are drivers based on the integration and coordination of relationships between consumers and producers of goods and services. In the work, it was investigated that the end-to-end integration of processes using digital information technologies allows you to accelerate all logistic business processes and predict new technological models. Modeling a dynamic material flow for the delivery of products (goods, services) using digital innovative technologies transforms it into a new form for future consumption. End-to-end optimization of results in supply chains analyzes logistics processes, identifying parameters that improve performance. These parameters or elements include key technologies that can provide fast, cheap, reliable and sustainable logistics. Key trends in business logistics are summarized, reflecting the advantages and disadvantages of it. The article also defines digital economy. It has been determined that a rather large number of studies have been devoted to this issue, but the approved definition of “digital economy” has not yet been clarified. Nevertheless, the development of digital technology trends is based on digital platforms, which are represented by three key classes and can be expressed by the network structure. The paper presents the process of trend formation under the influence of digital technologies. The current trends in logistics are generalized, a significant share of which falls on the transport sector. In conclusion, it is proved that despite the active impact of digitalization, the value of human and electronic potential does not decrease, but, on the contrary, is updated.

Management. Environmental management

Технология встраивания КСО в управление предприятием Minchenko L.V., Skorobogatov M.V., Angelova A.Y.

In the presented article questions of incorporation of corporate approaches to management in the course of realization of the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) into the system of enterprise management are investigated. One of the important directions of construction of mutually advantageous relations with key groups of stakeholders is introduction of the concept of CSR in the general strategy of the enterprise. The methodological basis of the research is a set of general scientific methods, such as theoretical generalization, comparison, and also a system approach to formation of interrelated strategies for different hierarchical levels of enterprise management with an orientation on CSR principles. The publication proves the necessity to overcome the isolation of socially responsible programs and initiatives and to ensure their close interrelation with the key business processes of an enterprise on a strategic basis through introduction of CSR elements into the strategic management system. It suggests stages of formation of an integrated corporate (business) strategy based on CSR principles which allow implementing an integrated strategic approach to it at all hierarchical levels of enterprise management. It is emphasized that corporate and business strategies of an enterprise integrated with socially responsible goals and principles form prerequisites for increasing operational efficiency of its management systems.

Исследование особенностей внедрения принципов «зеленой» логистики для промышленных предприятий России Treiman M.G. , Kopanskaj A.A.

The economic direction of “green” logistics has appeared in foreign countries as one of the sections of the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the definitions of this term by foreign and Russian authors dealing with this issue and clarifies this concept taking into account the modern systematic approach. Next, some historical aspects of the development of "green" logistics, as well as foreign trends in its formation, focused on the development of new environmentally friendly modes of transport and alternative sources of fuel, are examined. The importance of digitizing and building logistics activities based on analysis and work with BigData was separately noted. The article also discusses the features of introducing the concept in Russia and reflects the role of state policy in the field of environmental protection and its impact on the greening of industries. An algorithm for introducing the principles and methods of green logistics for industrial enterprises in Russia is presented and an example of the application of the concept of sustainable development at Heineken is given

Порядок и особенности организации производственного экологического контроля на предприятиях хлебопекарной отрасли Didikov А.Е.

Currently, serious steps are being taken in the Russian Federation to solve the problem of the negative impact of industrial enterprises on the environment. Over the past few years, the legal framework has been significantly strengthened to solve this problem by introducing a new environmental standardization based on the application of the best available technologies (BAT). The system proposed in Federal Law No. 219 ФЗ implies the ranking of all enterprises in the Russian Federation, according to the degree of their impact on the environment, into four categories. The analysis carried out in the work shows that the bulk of the enterprises of the bakery industry, according to the degree of environmental impact on the environment, can be attributed to the III and IV categories. The new law provides for such business entities a notification procedure for submitting reporting documents to the federal executive bodies of the Russian Federation authorized by the Government of the Russian Federation. The documentation includes reports on emissions of harmful (polluting) substances into the atmospheric air, on the formation, use, neutralization and disposal of waste; an action plan for the protection of the environment (if it is impossible to comply with the standards for permissible emissions, standards for permissible discharges), as well as the program of industrial environmental monitoring (PEC). This paper proposes an order and specifies the peculiarities of the organization of the PEC at the enterprises of the baking industry, provides a list of the necessary regulatory documents and gives recommendations on the sequence of their implementation. Timely development and implementation of PEC at the bakery industry will significantly reduce the risks of receiving excess payments associated with the absence or incorrect maintenance of environmental documentation, as well as help in organizing effective production control of the state of the environment.

Геймификация как инструмент принятия управленческих решений Kovalenko B.B. , Gusarova T.I.

Currently, there is an increase in competition. In order not to be outsiders of the “race for leaders”, organizations need to constantly make critical management decisions. These decisions must guarantee its effectiveness and survival. Since every day enterprises have to look for more and more new ways to keep themselves afloat, enterprises are required to make atypical, innovative decisions. To make the most effective innovative management decisions requires creating conditions that stimulate creativity. And for this, it is recommended to use a technology such as gamification, which is one of the main trends of our time. The purpose of this article is to determine the degree of influence of gamification on the process of making management decisions in the organization. Data and methods. To achieve the goal, data from analytical agencies were reviewed and analyzed, examples of the practical application of gamification in various industries were studied, and a study was conducted on the gamification of the process of making managerial decisions. Analysis of the results. As a result, conclusions were drawn that an increase in interest in the phenomenon of gamification goes in many directions. The total volume of the global gamification market is also growing. Another indicator of the growing demand for gamification is the emergence of new professions that are directly related to this area (game teacher, game master, etc.). This technology is becoming a very vivid form of motivation, with the help of which you can interest people to behave not in a routine, but in an innovative way. This means increasing the company's ability to use the most effective and innovative management solutions. By gamification of team work, the company provides its employee with a tool that will bring him more pleasure from work, which will positively affect his emotional state and the general climate within the company. The better the quality of management decisions, the better for the company. Thus, the gamification of the management decision-making process can lead to an increase in the efficiency of the entire enterprise. However, despite the obvious popularity of gamification techniques, the introduction of this concept is proceeding at a slow pace. The main reason can be noted the lack of development of the implementation and application of gamification. Therefore, when choosing gamification tools, it is necessary to take into account the specifics of the enterprise since how much the application of this technology will be effective depends on a whole range of factors: industry, corporate culture, type of organization structure, team psychology, and much more. Thus, for each organization it is necessary to develop a comprehensive system that will take into account all these factors. It is also important to consider the long-term goals of the company to better apply gamification. So, with proper implementation and use, gamification can become an effective motivational and organizational component of a company.

Управление сквозными процессами получения и передачи знаний в секторе науки и высшего образования Litvinova N.A. , Burtsev D.S., Gavrilyuk E.S.

The relevance of the work is due to the problems of reproduction of innovations in Russia when implementing the processes of obtaining and transferring knowledge in the sector of science and higher education. Innovation is one of the key processes in the transition to a new technological structure, and scientific and higher educational institutions are significant actors in the national innovation system. However, in the process of technology transfer, significant difficulties arise. Despite the relatively high innovative potential, most of the knowledge and ideas in Russia are not commercialized. Applying a process approach to the study of the effectiveness of process management by the acquisition and transfer of knowledge in the sector of science and higher education, it seems possible to confirm the hypothesis of its success in order to increase the efficiency of the processes under study. The aim of the study was to develop a methodology for assessing the end-to-end processes of obtaining and transferring knowledge in the sector of science and higher education. Data and methods: a review of literary sources was conducted, which revealed the essence of the process approach and identified problems in managing the acquisition and transfer of knowledge in the sector of science and higher education. The method for identifying end-to-end processes and assessment criteria were developed taking into account existing approaches to the classification of business processes based on the study of scientific research results, modern management practices and current regulatory and legal acts in the field of quality management system. The evaluation algorithm is presented in the form of a flowchart developed in accordance with the main provisions of the structural approach used in programming. To test the methodology, a list of business processes was compiled based on an analysis of the data provided in the literature. To highlight key end-to-end processes, the method of expert assessments was used. Analysis of the results: on the basis of theoretical studies, a methodology for evaluating end-to-end processes has been developed. The presented methodology allows to identify key end-to-end processes and increase the efficiency of managing the acquisition and transfer of knowledge in the sector of science and higher education. The forms of commercialization of the results of innovative activities of universities, the processes of obtaining knowledge in scientific institutions, the forms of interaction with private enterprises are analyzed. As a result of the application of the methodology, the following key processes of obtaining and transferring knowledge in the sector of science and higher education were identified: the processes of creating small innovative enterprises at a university, the processes for registering information technologies, and various forms of outsourcing of business ideas from private firms. In order to improve the management efficiency of the identified key end-to-end processes, their subsequent modeling and reengineering is assumed.

Построение современных управленческих решений на базе применения методов Design of Experiments (DOE) для определения значений факторов оптимизации в лёгкой промышленности Sergeeva I.G., Potsulin А.D. , Chudnova O.A.

For maintaining their competitive advantages, enterprises should be mobile, dynamically stable, and actively use modern management technologies. According to difficult external conditions modern enterprises need to act systematically, harmoniously and almost instantly, i.e. it is necessary to comprehensively solve issues based on huge amounts of data. This is not possible without the cognitive apparatus underlying the new management methods. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal values of production factors and to study the assessment of their influence in the framework of quality control of shoe products by using the Design of Experiments (DOE) method. The application of this method is one of the basic cognitive devices in the development and implementation of a new structure and methods for making managerial decisions in enterprises. The object of research is an enterprise of light industry. The following methods of mathematical analysis are used in the study: planning matrix, regression equation. The analysis of regulatory documents showed that a number of existing national standards in the field of quality control do not meet the requirements of the modern economy. As a result of the study, the most significant factors were identified that affect the level of product quality of the enterprise. As a result of the experiment, a mathematical model is constructed that takes into account all possible interactions between these factors. As a result of checking the model for adequacy and its interpretation, optimal values are determined for the studied production factors. This study was carried out as part of the research project No. 618279 "Methods and tools of innovative and entrepreneurial activity in the digital economy."

Методы оценки эффективности управления персоналом в розничной торговле Mishura L.G. , Shkarina E.A.

Introduction: In the context of the active digitalization of the economy, the external and internal environment for the existence of enterprises is subject to significant changes, which necessitates the efficient management of the enterprise’s labor resources, and the use of new methods of stimulating and motivating personnel. In the modern world, considerable attention is paid to stimulating and motivating personnel activities as the main engine in the organization's work. Human nature is multifaceted and sometimes unpredictable, and it is important for the company to be sure that the staff is a reliable and effective resource in the life and functioning of the company. Before developing the development of fundamentally new methods of employee incentives, it is worth considering methods for assessing the effectiveness of personnel activities. The purpose of this article is to study existing methods for assessing the performance of enterprise personnel, which can also be applied at retail enterprises. Data and methods: to achieve the goal, domestic and foreign methods and approaches to assessing the effectiveness of employees that are applicable to the retail sector were considered. Analysis of the results: based on an analysis of the methods and approaches used in domestic and foreign practices, the method was recommended as the most suitable for assessing the impact of the performance of employees of a retail enterprise on the financial result of the activities of the enterprise being studied. As a result, it was concluded that the relationship between these areas is most evident when using a system of balanced indicators and evaluating key performance indicators of labor resources and the financial performance of retail enterprises.

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