March 2023 (published: 10.02.2023)
Методические подходы к локализации промышленного производства на современном этапе Vetrova E.N., Azirov G.S.
The distinctive features of the current stage of economic development include significant changes associated with an increasing degree of manufacturability, digital transformation, as well as the involvement in the economic circulation of the accumulated arrays of digital data on the subjects and processes of economic activity. At the same time, the development of individual sectors of the economy is uneven, the boundaries between adjacent areas are blurred, new previously non-existent areas of activity are being created, fundamentally different business models are emerging or the approach to their implementation is changing. The basis of the economy is high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries that can keep up with the times or get ahead of it. In modern conditions, this is actualized by the increasing importance of import substitution and localization, which, in turn, requires additional costs for the organization and management of enterprises, research and development (R&D, R&D) in various sectors of the national economy, incl. and in the pharmaceutical industry, whose enterprises are high-tech. At the same time, the localization model is also changing, since its core is often violated - a foreign company localized in Russia and leaving this market, and its stakeholders - some of the suppliers either stop their activities in the territory of the Russian Federation or change its model, or experience logistical problems. This situation leads to: it is necessary to speed up import substitution in many areas of economic activity, and, first of all, in high-tech sectors of the economy; it is necessary to revise the strategy and model of localization. For many companies, it is very important to continue effective work in the face of the need to intensify import substitution in the current situation. One of the tools for successful growth for many companies can be the development of local production, investment in it, expansion of production capacities and modernization. Possible advantages of localization of production, as well as difficulties, are primarily related to factors such as: location; production; local R&D and flexible response to changing demand; local frames. Science-intensive production receives additional potential for its development due to the demand for domestic R&D and technical solutions in the domestic market. This also applies to the pharmaceutical industry, which belongs to the high-tech sector and is embedded in the chains of various activities. At the same time, the domestic pharmaceutical industry has significant lags in the world market, which forms a certain model of its development and potential in the domestic market in various segments. The study of scientific and methodological literature has shown that the very localization of production to date remains insufficiently studied in the domestic science of industry and industrial development. In particular, it is necessary to work out its theoretical and methodological foundations, issues of localization management and its economic efficiency. The object of the work is the economic activity of Russian pharmaceutical industry enterprises. The subject of the work is the localization of Russian industry. The aim of the study is to clarify the methodological approaches to the localization of high-tech production in the pharmaceutical industry. The study was carried out using the scientific and methodological foundations of economic science, including methods of analysis and synthesis, statistical and strategic methods, methods of statistical processing of information, methods for substantiating management decisions, methods of expert assessments and visualization.
Основные проблемы функционирования финансового сектора хозяйства России под влиянием экзогенных причин Zueva O.A.
Most scientists agree on the financial sector as the predominant element of the economic system and the presence of a gap between the financial and real sectors. However, there is no unity of conceptual approaches to the consideration of the phenomenon of the financial sector and the problems of its functioning. Foreign scientists represent the financial sector as: 1) a key element of economic growth (M. Binswanger, J. Gurley, etc.); 2) negative trend (E. Altvater, H. Minsky, etc.); 3) temporal trend (H. Hesse, J. Tobin, etc.). Three main positions of domestic scientists reveal the financial sector as 1) an element of the economic system, including financial services with a predominance of banking activities of subjects and the impossibility of opposing "real" and "unreal" activities (L. Baron, T. Zakharova); 2) the negative reality of the economy (D. Miropolsky, V. Ryazanov and others); 3) the prevailing subsystem in the economy (E. Akopova, A. Borodin, O. Molchanova, I. Sergeeva, etc.) The position of the author lies in the statement about the growth of the scale of the financial sector at different levels as the dominant and speculative subsystem of the economic system. Data and Metods. Different research methods, Russian and foreign experience testify to the unproductive interaction of the domestic real and financial sectors, which increases the gap between these sectors due to problems in the functioning of the financial sector. The exogenous reasons for the unproductive functioning of the financial sector in Russia are revealed: a drop in the growth rate of the global economy, the lack of global regulation of the circulation of virtual money, a ban on the access of financial entities to the international capital market and technologies, the introduction of ESG - estimates, etc. The problems of functioning of the financial sector in Russia under the influence of exogenous factors are identified in a complex way: the decline in the competitiveness of the sector, the strengthening of debt problems and technological backwardness, and the decrease in liquidity. Analys of Results. The identified problems of the inefficient functioning of the Russian financial sector are aggravated by a difficult geopolitical situation, sanctions and aggravation of problems in the activities of financial agents. Over the past twenty years, the ineffectiveness of the monetary policy of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation requires a review of the use of monetary methods of influence as part of the transformation of the financial sector through segmentation and the creation of small banks to reduce the number of restrictions, the introduction of new financial settlement schemes in rubles and the strengthening of the currency subsector.
Оценка ожидаемого исхода при формировании финансового результата: концепция и инструментарий Lisitsa M.I.
The subject of the study are the probability models to determine the expected financial result of the business activity of an enterprise for a single period of time. In this context the purpose of the work is to substantiate the effect stated in the subject of the article in the business activity of a commercial organization acting as an object of the research. The work is based on a synthesis of the tools of mathematical statistics and probability theory with the method of fundamental response testing (in the form of the expected effect for a single period of time and also the probability of achieving an uncovered loss, net profit, break-even) tochange of the influencing parameters (in the form of the number of true values of uncovered loss, net profit, break-even and also the probability of achieving an uncovered loss, net profit). A number of conclusions can be considered to be the result of the study. First, the assessment of the expected outcome seems to be a potentially attractive option for identifying the expected financial result, since it not only provides insight into the probability of occurrence of an uncovered loss, net profit, break-even, but also indicates the achievement of the most likely (expected) financial result. Second, the type of probable (expected) financial result is important, rather than its quantitative assessment, although it is also present. Third, there is a problem about the methodology, namely the unreliability of statistics within the constantly changing business conditions, on the basis of which the probabilities of outcomes are revealed. The fourth, the presented approach can potentially be in demand by the enterprises with a relatively long history of business activity, which are alsobound by the necessity for the development of the predictive assessment of the expected effect due to legislative requirements and/or due to the requirements of the statutory (constituent) documents.
Анализ и оценка эффективности IPO Российских компаний Sosnilo A.I. , Onore A.S. , Onore G.S.
The article discusses the conduct of an initial public offering (IPO) as a way to attract additional funding compared to alternative sources of external capital, examines the feasibility of this process. The versatile views of researchers on the topic under study are highlighted. The aim of the work is to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of IPOs of Russian companies by calculating the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and economic value added (EVA). When using WACC, the efficiency criterion is a comparison of the calculated indicator with the cost of financing raised as a result of the IPO. The study describes a gradual calculation method, as well as the benefits of applying the coefficient. To analyze the feasibility of entering the stock exchange with the help of economic value added, it is necessary to compare its values before the placement of shares by the company and over the next few years after. Increasing the values of the indicator makes it possible to draw a conclusion about the success of the IPO and evaluate the results of the company's activities after raising funds. The article provides gradual calculations of both indicators for two Russian companies that have recently carried out an initial public offering on the Moscow Stock Exchange (MOEX) – Samolet Group and Segezha Group. During the study of the WACC and EVA coefficients, the advantages and disadvantages of their use were identified. The weighted average cost of capital can be used for companies that are just planning an IPO. Advantage of EVA consists in a clear logic of calculation based on data posted in the public domain. In conclusion, a conclusion was made about the effectiveness of the initial public offering of shares for each of the companies, respectively. It is recommended to additionally investigate other indicators to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the feasibility of IPOs by Russian companies.
Роль технологии Больших данных в переходе от финансового к управленческому учету в условиях промышленных предприятий Prokhorov A.P. , Prokhorova S.V.
The article considers the impact of Big Data technology on the integration of corporate financial and management accounting in industrial enterprises and analyzes the opinions of Russian and foreign researchers on the subject. The relevance of the research consists in obtaining the original results of empirical study of the problem of integration of financial and management accounting in Russian industrial enterprises. The financial accounting still uses the traditional working procedures focusing on accounting, as a result, it is difficult to transit to managerial work. The management accounting is still not effectively integrated. This problem is widespread in small and medium-sized enterprises. In practice, the management accounting plays an essential role in the long-term development of the enterprise. This mainly lies in the fact that the management accounting can provide the decision makers with accurate estimates and planning of future directions of the industry development and positioning based on the financial data, as well as help to understand the issues of enterprise management in order to find out the basic competitiveness of the industry. The final part contains the conclusions showing that for the effective implementation of the integration of corporate financial accounting and management accounting based on Big Data technology, it is necessary to rely on the modern concept of financial management and use the most advanced tools. The results obtained can be comprehensively used in the construction of the business management in the field of accounting with the use of modern technologies.
Управление климато-зависимыми финансовыми рисками в российских банках: методологические аспекты Ivanov V.V. , Nurmuhametov R.K.
Climate change really creates financial risks. That’s why they should be included into the overall risk management process in banks. At the same time the definition of climate-dependent financial risk management principles is extremely important. The subject of the study is based on the Basel Principles financial risks associated with climate change bank’s management. The issue is aimed to determine how the Basel Principles can be implemented in the practice of Russian banks management. The object of the study are bank’s risks. The methods used in the study are universal and specific scientific methods, methods of comparative analysis. The authors consider the content of the principles developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, as well as the problems of their implementation in the risk management systems concerning the scale, complexity and risk profile of each bank. Special attention is devoted to realization of principles developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, interrelation between climate-related risks and capital and liquidity adequacy, scenario analysis as a tool of climate-related financial risks management, as well as to monitoring and quantifying material climate-related risks. The principles provide the need to estimate climate-related material financially risks throughout the entire life cycle of the loan – from customer registration until continuous monitoring of customer’s credit risk profiles related to climate. In these circumstances, banks are encouraged to conduct regular assessments of the concentration of climate-related financial risks in highly risk-prone sectors and geographical regions. The results of the study can be implemented in financial risk management systems in Russian banks.
Модель информационно-сервисной поддержки корпоративных логистических процессов в архитектуре предприятия Anisiforov A.B.
Corporate logistics is one of the most difficult areas of economic activity of any large industrial enterprise. creates complex material flows that affect almost all manufacturing control functions and are accompanied by financial and information flows and is the study object. Thus, logistical information processes are profoundly integrated into the enterprise information environment. The author proposes an architectural approach as the main building technique for a company’s inbound and outbound logistics business model, under which the internal and external information and organizational connections of logistics with the most important manufacturing control functionsare analyzed. The study states that the enterprise architecture is the mainstay for functioning of the company’s logistical management system. The purpose of the study is to analyze information processes in the enterprise logistical systemand to design the information and service support model of corporate logistical process in the enterprise architecture. Based on the analysis of information processes in the enterprise logistical system, on methods and models of corporate logistical process management the role and significance of production logistics, its features in the enterprise logistical management system are determined. The full range of IT solutions that create information flows supporting the most important logistical business processes, such as supply chain management, core and auxiliary production preparation and management, stock, reserve and store management, material flow through the technological logistics network, products distribution and sales is considered in detail. The model of information and service support of corporate logistics was constructed, the main information technologies and digital platforms allowing to integrate business processes of all participants of the corporate logistics network into a single architecture that provides an effective management of the corporate logistics in the enterprise information management system were defined.
Анализ рисков инновационных проектов, построенных на основе иммерсивных технологий Gorovoy A.A. , Grigoriev I.V.
The immersive technologies are rapidly spreading and cover an increasing number of sectors of the economy. The risk management of innovative projects is of current interest since these projects are fraught with greater uncertainty than the projects based on the traditional techniques. The article considers the first stages of risk management: risk analysis and assessment. The immersive technologies include both the risks common to the business activity and specific risks arising from the characteristics of innovative projects. The main risks of the immersive projects are identified, analyzed and evaluated in the article using the method of interviewing experts introducing the immersive technologies.
Управление эколого-экономической эффективностью ввоза электромобильного транспорта в Российскую Федерацию Trubitsyn K.V. , Tkachev V.K.
The concept of environmental and economic efficiency is currently one of the central and relevant on the world agenda. The climate problem is being discussed at various levels. In the work, the authors raise the issue of evaluating such efficiency and its management in the context of the import and subsequent use of electric vehicles on the territory of the Russian Federation. The customs statistics of import of electric vehicles to Russia is given. It has been established that the leaders among the supplying countries are currently China (three-quarters of all deliveries in terms of value) and Belarus (more than half of deliveries in physical terms). Most electric vehicles are imported through the Central Federal District. The study of the possibility of model analysis of the impact of customs regulation of the import of electric vehicles into the customs territory of the EAEU in the work is carried out on the basis of the application of a production function of the Cobb-Douglas type. The factors that can be included in the model are the total excise taxes as a type of customs payment levied when cars are imported into the territory of the Russian Federation, and the number of electric cars sold in the Russian Federation. As a simulated indicator, an environmental and economic criterion was chosen, for which the ratio of the total volume of emissions into the atmosphere of the most common pollutants from road transport to the gross domestic product produced in the Russian Federation was taken. The results obtained as a result of modeling are positive in terms of their impact on the environment and the national economy. As a result of evaluating the effectiveness of the implementation of the model solution, it was found that the environmental and economic criterion reaches its optimal value, provided that each of the newly purchased electric vehicles in Russia must correspond to a total excise tax of 13.7 million rubles. Therefore, with a higher growth rate of sales of electric cars in terms of environmental efficiency, a gradual reduction in excise tax rates for cars with classic internal combustion engines is possible.
Управление цифровыми технологиями для обеспечения устойчивого развития экономики развивающихся стран Manish Kumar Pandey , Sergeeva I.G.
In the changing world order, emerging countries have gone through a lot of challenges, with a direct impact on the economies, especially on a significant number of small and large-scale businesses. COVID-19 pandemic introduced a huge disruption in the supply chain, which largely contributed to consumer panic buying, inflation, profiteering activities, disruptions leading to economy drop, insufficient income and resultant hunger. Advantages of technological innovations have never been more relevant to attain efficiency, employ more local companies, and develop a more accurate business model, which can help industry stakeholders determine blockers in their business processes. In this paper, the impact of technological innovations on the global sustainable development goal 2, hunger eradication has been specifically analysed. Key common challenges regarding supply chain and lack of strong policies are delved into in order to assess the struggles in capitalizing the industrialization and technology, the relationship between the producers and the market that can be improved, as well as the process of modernizing the distribution cycle. When stakeholder relationships, industrialization, and supply chain management are evolved, this can be considered as the starting points that can contribute significantly towards achieving zero hunger societies across the world.
Параллельный импорт как механизм управления экономикой Degtereva V.A., Makarova O.N., Kuzenkova E.S. , Martynenko O.V.
The last few years have become a real strength test for Russian business. The pandemic and the imposition of sanctions have led to a decrease in demand and the shutdown of many industries. There was a need to search for effective management solutions and to revise the supply chains. Thanks to the development of import substitution and the launch of parallel imports, the situation has changed radically. Currently, parallel imports are rapidly gaining momentum and solve the problem of managing the supply of goods. However, a number of experts emphasize that "... rejection from the advanced European markets is not very pleasant for Russia, and the greater the depth of this fault, the more difficult it is to establish ties in the future." The process of managing parallel imports is aimed at a set of specific actions that trigger the mechanism of economic management. On the one hand, there are many goods and there is demand, and as a result, only a few can satisfy the demand in the market. Thus, the management of import analysis should provide a reliable lever of pressure on the economic mechanism. This article deals with the problems of analytical import management. According to the authors, it is fashionable to consider natural development as a reasonable incentive for the development of the Russian economy. Parallel import optimizes current processes and is “…a shortage dampener”.
Внедрение инструментов цифровизации в сфере общественного питания Skorobogatov M.V., Minchenko L.V.
To maintain the competitiveness of organizations, today's realities require modern technological and technical solutions, and the catering sector is no exception. The relevance of the study is that the digitalization of the catering sector allows you to apply a customer-oriented approach, increase profits and improve the popular segment of the delivery of restaurant business products, which is the subject of increased demand in the post-covid era, and the currently existing economic sanctions against Russia by unfriendly states, namely, allows you to reduce the costs of doing business. The purpose of this re research - in connection with the implementation of the government program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation" - is to consider the conditions and tasks of digitalization of catering enterprises in Russia, key components of the development of the catering market, to highlight the main trends in the use of information technologies. The authors made an attempt to analyze both already introduced and promising digital technologies at private and state catering enterprises. The problems arising in the process of digitalization of the food industry in Russia are considered. Based on the analysis, the article proposes a phased algorithm for introducing digitalization tools at food enterprises - an industry that allows you to quickly and optimally get the expected effect in terms of costs.
Сравнительный анализ методов эффективного функционирования предприятия Vasilenok V.L., Negreeva V.V., Kochegarova T.S.
The relevance of the topic outlined in the article is connected with the fact that in the conditions of sanctions effective management of an industrial enterprise involves rapid adaptation to modern realities. The purpose of such management becomes the formation of the system of effective functioning of an industrial enterprise. The study analyzes the dynamics of the index of industrial production and production by type of economic activity. The concepts and approaches determining the effective functioning of the enterprise are generalized. On the basis of the executed comparative review of methods the indicators providing the analysis of the enterprise activity are presented. However, it should be noted that some of the criteria specific to a particular enterprise depend on the factors of its uniqueness, that is, each enterprise has a number of features and specifics of activity, management methods, therefore, the applied conceptual approaches will also be different. As a result of the study, the authors summarized the theoretical and practical approaches to the analysis of efficiency within the enterprise management, and also made the conclusion that at the moment there is no unified way to analyze the effective functioning of the subjects of economic relations, despite the sufficient number of available methods. It is noted that it is difficult and irrational to use any method to study the activities of the enterprise in all available situations. In determining the method of analyzing the effective functioning of an enterprise or industry, a certain number of aspects, criteria and requirements are adopted for the analysis of the effective functioning and management of the industrial enterprise. In addition, the methods of analyzing the effective functioning continue to improve, based on the latest scientific approaches and methods of mathematical analysis.
Управление ценой с учетом фактора дохода Stepanova T.V. , Vasilyeva Y.D.
The relevance of the article lies in the study of the impact of prices on the welfare of society, taking into account the affordability of a daily set of food products for the population. The process of pricing in a market economy is associated with a high level of uncertainty and rapidly changing conditions of production and consumers' ability to pay. In this case, the constant monitoring of prices for similar products and services from other producers is demanded for a timely response to their changes. The article compares the prices of goods and incomes of the population in different subjects of the Russian Federation. The process of forming the price of products and services taking into account the solvency of the population, which have regional differences, contributes to the improvement of the welfare of the population. To this end, the article provides a comparative analysis of the prices of some products in different federal districts of the Russian Federation and examines the difference in the level of income of the population. The results of the comparative analysis caused the desire to refer to the concept of "fair price" with the possibility of its application in the current economic situation. The standard of living of the population depends on the value of prices, they determine the accessibility to the objects of physical education and sports, culture, affect the quality of purchased food, received services in various spheres of public services. Given the variety of factors that form the size of the price, the authors have identified, first of all. The amount of income received. In this regard, it seems appropriate to take into account the differences in the level of income of the population in different places of residence and to ensure the consistency of prices with this factor.