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September 2020 (published: 28.09.2020)
Home > Issue > Research of innovations in the sphere of environmental safety of megapolis transport
UDC 656.1, 504.054
Research of innovations in the sphere of environmental safety of megapolis transport
Anisimova A.I. , Lebedeva A.S.
The study examines innovative solutions in the field of environmental safety in transport in order to identify the best practices for solving environmental problems in domestic conditions. The object of the research is the transport system of the megalopolis, the subject is the environmental safety of urban land transport. The paper analyzes the consequences of the direct and indirect impact of the negative impact of the functioning of land transport on the environment, including animals, plants, soil, aquatic ecosystems, buildings and structures, and humans. In this case, the influence of not only the components of the exhaust gases of internal combustion en-gines is considered, but also vibration, excess of the permissible noise level, infrasound. In order to identify the best practices for solving environmental problems based on the application of innovations, an analysis of the dy-namics and degree of interconnection of indicators characterizing the effectiveness of environmental and innova-tion policies of countries was carried out on the basis of the Environmental Efficiency Index and the Global In-novation Index. The study revealed a global trend of deterioration of the environmental situation, as evidenced by a decrease in the index in some countries leading the rating. Correlation analysis of the data showed a mod-erate direct relationship between the Sustainability Index and the Global Innovation Index. The results of the study made it possible to identify countries in which the highest level of environmental safety is largely due to an innovative approach to solving existing environmental problems. These include Switzerland, France, Denmark. Based on the study of the practices of these countries in the field of ensuring the environmental safety of mega-lopolis transport, the most effective measures were identified, aimed at minimizing the negative consequences of the functioning of surface urban transport on the environment. The systematization and grouping of innovations was carried out in terms of the problems to be solved, the instrument of influence, the degree of prevalence, as well as an expert assessment of the applicability of certain solutions in domestic conditions As a result of system-atization, grouping and expert assessment, the most appropriate practices for implementation in domestic condi-tions were identified: a system of financial incentives, zoning based on environmental classification and the de-velopment of a system of special regulation of public transport using intelligent technologies. In addition, in some conditions, such areas as the creation of bicycle highways and hydrogen energy may be in demand. However, in the process of developing tools and strategic alternatives with regard to environmental safety in transport in the Russian Federation, one should take into account regional restrictions associated with mentality, climatic condi-tions, the level of infrastructure development, and the amount of available resources.
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Keywords: environmental safety, land transport of the megalopolis, innovation, Global Innovation Index, Environmental Per-formance Index.
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